artifact

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artefact

, artifact
Cytology a structure seen in tissue after death, fixation, staining, etc., that is not normally present in the living tissue
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

Artifact

Individual product of human manufacture, such as cutlery, glassware, pottery, textiles, tools, and weapons.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

artefact

or

artifact

any individual material object produced by a culture. The study of such objects is important in anthropology (see MATERIAL CULTURE). In ARCHAEOLOGY, the artefacts left behind by a society are the main means of reconstructing an account of that society.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000

artifact

[′ärd·ə‚fakt]
(archeology)
Any crafted object of common use that reflects the skills of humans in past cultures.
(communications)
Any component of a signal that is extraneous to the variable represented by the signal.
(histology)
A structure in a fixed cell or tissue formed by manipulation or by the reagent.
(medicine)
Noise or spurious signals that occur during various radiological imaging techniques; can reach a level where they appear in the image with as much strength as the signals produced by real objects.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

building artifact

An element in a building which demonstrates human workmanship, such as a stained-glass window.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

artifact

(1) Any element in a software development project. It includes documentation, test plans, images, data files and executable modules.

(2) A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound often go undetected.

Analog Artifacts
In film, artifacts such as blotches, scratches and flicker are commonly found, especially in older movies. Imperfections in the camera lenses and silver-grain film itself can generate "noise," which appears as tiny background specks, making the image softer. The electronic recording of analog videotapes can introduce noise as well. See noise.

Digital Artifacts
Artifacts are a natural byproduct of digital compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG, which permanently discard pixels. The greater the compression used, the more artifacts are likely, and fast motion sequences are a major contributor. As TV screens become larger, the distortions are more noticeable. In digital cameras, artifacts may arise when performing digital zoom. When analog material is converted to digital, tiny discrepancies (quantization errors) may result. See blocking artifacts, mosquito noise, feathering and quantization error.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The comparison of artifactual rules on four databases is shown in Figure 7(b).
Although the terms artifactual hypoglycaemia (coined in the 1960s) and pseudohypoglycaemia continue to be used interchangeably, there is a potential for some confusion since the American Diabetes Association and the Endocrine Society workgroup favoured the use of the term pseudohypoglycaemia in 2013 [4].
Artifactual undetectable HDL-cholesterol with the Beckman Synchron LX and Vitros 950 assays temporally associated with a paraprotein.
As we will see in short, Thomasson might have been clearer than she actually has been about what it means to have a "substantive" or "substantively correct" concept (4) of (and hence epistemic privilege about) an artifact or artifactual kind.
To factorize the observed time series x(t) into the cerebral sources [S.sub.s](t) and the EOG artifactual sources [S.sub.ns](t), SSA is applied to estimate the inverse mixing matrix [A.sup.-1] as B = [[[B.sup.T.sub.S] [B.sup.T.sub.S]].sup.T], such that [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] are the estimated cerebral and artifactual sources, respectively.
The critical limit attainable to contain the artifactual lead size by any sequence seems to be approximately 2.1 [+ or -] 0.1 mm.
We also cannot exclude that our antibody reacted with different epitopes (nonspecific for that of TSP-1) leading to artifactual staining.
Ascertainment of secondary cases in Scotland, which appeared to have a greater role in our study than may have been commonly assumed previously, may however be particularly affected by artifactual influences, such as more assiduous contact tracing resulting from heightened awareness, perhaps triggered by a combination of large outbreaks, a national task force, and enhanced surveillance (7,8).
So, rather than conceive the self as a transcendental ego (Kant), a biologically determined agent (Dawkins) or a transcendental subjectivity (Husserl), it is better to conceive it as naturally encultured and constructed, 'a hybrid of biological and cultural development whose "second-natured" competences evolve in tandem with biological maturation' (55)--in other words, an artifactual self.
This paper attempts to make clear the underlying, ontological distinctions among the objects involved, suggesting clear lines between the natural and the artifactual, as well as a unified approach to all artifacts in the law of IP.
Martin also asserts that the artifactual assemblage excavated from Thomas Jefferson's Poplar Forest, "in combination with local store records, enables a unique two-tiered level of analysis of slave possessions" (185) but cites only a 1997 conference paper for the Poplar Forest artifacts.