In other words, how do you build an artificial harbor
off the coast of France where an invading army could unload all its troops, supplies, tanks, jeeps, ammunition and other material for the invasion of Europe?
Seems Britain's Vice Admiral Louis Mountbatten, then chief of combined operations, was seeking his boss's support in developing an idea for an artificial harbor
; he made his case and received the following response:
Running in or through Kobe are the Shinkansen (the bullet train), the JR (Japan Railways) line, the municipal subway, Portliner and Rokkoliner (elevated light rail lines connecting central Kobe to two artificial harbor
islands), and the Hankyu and Hanshin private lines.
Little of this plan was executed as intended, and Blackford details once again how the construction of the Owens Valley aqueduct, the Federally-funded construction of the new artificial harbor
at San Pedro, and the first large-scale implementation of land-use zoning set Los Angeles on its path of massive decentralized growth, a story already well told in Robert Fogelson's The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850-1930 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967).
Indeed, during the course of the war the Allies employed unorthodox tactics like dropping streams of tinfoil from planes to confuse enemy radar (dubbed "Window" - and an idea the Nazis later stole when bombing London in 1944), the development of miniature submarines, the construction of artificial harbors
(called mulberries - an idea that Churchill first sketched out in 1917!), and dam busting bouncing bombs.
Much more of everything would soon start pouring in through the two Mulberry artificial harbors
A harbor settlement inhabited starting from 6000 years ago and apparently equipped with a fortification wall partially submerged in the sea along the shore significantly transformed in time, Limantepe is one of the oldest known artificial harbors
in the Aegean Sea.
This is a popular account that begins with the building of the atom and hydrogen bombs and proceeds through Project Plowshare (artificial harbors
, second Suez canal), the various ingenious efforts to contain hot and unstable plasmas (magnetic bottles and such), using lasers to ignite plasmas, Pons and Fleischmann's "cold fusion" experiments, Livermore Labs LASNEX computer simulations, "bubble fusion," and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which was followed by ITER-Lite and which still beckons "after five decades of broken promises, lies, delusions, and self-deception." Seife concludes that the promise of a fusion reactor remains, as it had since the 1950s, 30 years away.
About 1200 B.C., the Phoenicians began building artificial harbors
to shelter their fleets and to accommodate their expanding trade network, Morhange proposes.