artificial languages

Also found in: Idioms.

artificial languages,

languages that are invented by one or more human beings as opposed to languages that develop naturally among peoples. Examples of artificial languages are Volapük, EsperantoEsperanto
, an artificial language introduced in 1887 and intended by its inventor, Dr. Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (1859–1917), a Polish oculist and linguist, to ease communication between speakers of different languages. In the 20th cent.
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, and IdoIdo
, short name of Esperandido, an artificial language that is a simplified version of Esperanto. See international language.
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. See international languageinternational language,
sometimes called universal language, a language intended to be used by people of different linguistic backgrounds to facilitate communication among them and to reduce the misunderstandings and antagonisms caused by language differences.
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Artificial Languages


special languages that, unlike natural languages, are constructed purposefully; they are used for performing certain functions of a natural language in data processing systems. There are two types of artificial languages: information languages and international auxiliary languages.

The idea for the creation of an international language arose in the 17th and 18th centuries as a result of the gradually decreasing international role of Latin. The initial schemes were aimed mainly at the development of a rational language, free from the logical inconsistencies of living languages and based on the logical classification of concepts. Schemes imitating patterns and material of living languages also appeared later. The first such scheme was Volapük, which was created in 1880 by the German linguist J. Schleyer. Esperanto, the only artificial language to be used on a large scale and to attract active proponents of an international language, became the best-known artificial language. A considerable number of translated and even original literary works exists in Esperanto. Of the later artificial languages, the best known are Occidental (Interlingue), created by E. de Wahl (Estonia) in 1922; Novial, created by O. Jespersen (Denmark) in 1928; and Interlingua, created by the Italian mathematician G. Peano in 1908 and the International Auxiliary Language Association in New York under the direction of A. Gode in 1950.

Artificial international language schemes may be divided into the following groups according to their structure: (1) a priori languages, based on logical or empirical classifications of concepts (Ro and Solresol); (2) mixed languages, based partly on words borrowed from various languages and partly on artificially invented words (Volapük); and (3) languages constructed primarily on the basis of an international vocabulary (Esperanto, Ido, and Interlingua).


References in periodicals archive ?
countless models of artificial language, Ogden began working in 1923 on
The semiological studies of the natural language were extrapolated in the era of information into artificial languages, in the design of semantical algorithms, semantic webs and ontologies.
Thus, I would argue that if, from the point of view of the history of artificial language projects, Mercury seems a text of much lesser interest than Wilkins's later and more mature work, nonetheless, this early pamphlet sheds some light on the epistemological shift which started in the seventeenth century and manifested itself in "a modification in the rules of formation of statements which are accepted as scientifically true" (Foucault 1980: 112).
Ranging from John Wilkins (Philosophical Language) through William Bliss (Blissymbolics) to John Brown (Loglan), ILIL details the eccentricities, neuroses, and missteps of artificial language's "mad dreamers" over the last three hundred and fifty years or so, encouraging the reader not only to see them all as failures, but also to wonder whether the failure lay with the language or the inventor.
There is much to commend as she traces language decay in Tolkien's 1937 linguistic account of his artificial languages, The Lhammas.
Now, the fact that the algorithm for analogical reasoning makes a suggestion for the similarity between these roles should lead to a similar lexicalization of the roles of 'pusher' and 'walker' (on average, given many different artificial languages).
Tanaka-Ishii writes that programming languages are artificial languages designed to control machines.
He adds provocative remarks about the early development of the use of artificial languages within India, as well as many asides in many other directions.
With an eye towards automated code generation rather than intensive programming, the advanced textbook extends linguistics to artificial languages, explores the cognitive model of internal information presentation in the brain, introduces the generic rules and theories of abstract systems, applies decision theory to engineering management, and provides a framework for optimal allocation of labor, resources, and schedules.
To test this hypothesis, an experiment using artificial languages with different stress patterns was run.
I do not want to criticize here the naive attempts to create artificial languages in detail but only on the spur of the moment.
Concluding with lectures on Black English, "language death", and artificial languages, Professor McWhorter ends with his lecture series with "Finale--Master Class".