Afterwards, alkyl or aryl halide
(0.012-0.410 g) was added slowly to the solution within 5 mins and stirred for 48 hours at 80 AdegC.
Oxidative addition (reaction of aryl halide
with a zerovalent palladium catalyst) is often described as a rate-limiting step, and numerous papers are dedicated to the experimental and theoretical investigations of its kinetics and mechanism [12-15].
At its core, a Buchwald-Hartwig amination is an aryl halide
reacting with an amine [see above example].
In a 25 mL reaction flask the aryl halide
(1.0 equivalent), 1.2 equivalents of phenylboronic acid (Aldrich, 95%), 2.0 equivalents of [K.sub.2]C[O.sub.3] (Aldrich, 99.9%), the palladium catalyst, and 5mL of the solvent were added at room temperature.
In laboratory-scale synthesis, phenols are routinely prepared through the nucleophilic substitution of an activating aryl halide
 in a copper-catalyzed transformation of a diazoarene  or through the Pd-catalyzed conversion of an aryl halide
to a phenol using phosphine ligands .
Zhou, "Asymmetric intermolecular heck reaction of aryl halides
," Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.
Biarylation of several nitrated aryl halides
was achieved in good to quantitative yields when performed in custom-made copper vials through continuous shaking without additional copper or solvent.
Among the topics are the copper-catalyzed formation of carbon-phosphorous bonds with aryl halides
, insights into the mechanism of modern Ullmann-Goldberg coupling reactions, copper-catalyzed alkynylation and alkenylation reactions of alkynyl derivatives, applying copper-mediated carbon-nitrogen bond formation in complex molecule synthesis, and reusable catalysts for copper-mediated cross-coupling reactions under heterogeneous conditions.
In addition, aromatic boronic esters can be conveniently prepared through palladium-catalyzed borylation of aryl halides
with the diboron reagent (Scheme 3).6) When aryl halides
are readily available, this protocol is often quite effective to access functionalized aryl- and heteroarylboronic esters.
The palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction between aryl halides
and organoboronic acid is an excellent method for the synthesis of various biaryl compounds, which constitute a wide range of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and advanced materials [6-10].