tenuispina populations can be summarized as follow: 1) all seven populations exhibited high levels of intra-populational variation, 2) there was no evidence of genetic structure, neither from upwelling nor from geographical distance between populations, 3) the hypothesis that the Itaipu population is mainly maintained by asexual reproduction
was not supported by the genetic data, although this needs further confirmation from multi-locus genetic in the future.
Host growth and asexual reproduction
. Host growth, estimated at the end of the experiment from the oral disk diameter, was significantly impacted by Symbiodinium identity (1-way ANOVA, [F.sub.5, 44] = 19.820, P < 0.0001).
In both cases, it is asexual reproduction
which enables recovery of the affected area.
Trade-off between sexual and asexual reproduction
in a monoecious species Sagittaria pygmaea (Alismataceae): the effect of different nutrient levels.
Apomixis is an asexual reproduction
process forming the embryo without fusion of sperm cell and egg cells.
This was supported by failure to reproduce asexually in repeated laboratory infections of mice (Conn and Etges, 1984; McAllister and Conn 1990; McAllister et al., 1992) and by lack of morphology consistent with asexual reproduction
(see Conn 1986; Conn and McAllister 1990; McAllister et al., 2005).
In the case of Castells's recent work, the rhizome metaphor of asexual reproduction
works well in that it connotes growth which is both horizontal and beneath the surface of the ground: networks of "outrage and hope" are horizontal in that they create solidaristic meanings and "togetherness" (Castells, 2012, page 225) in the absence of formal leadership, and grow through nonhierarchical modes of exercising power [what has recently been referred to as 'coactive' or 'non-dominating' forms of power and activism (Pearce, 2013)]; new "roots and shoots" (Castells, 2012, page 147) are nurtured underground in ways that are not visibly measurable but which suggest possibilities for the emergence of alternative futures (and hope--for the growth of better ones).
Some holothurian species are capable of asexual reproduction
. Most fissiparous holothurians live in tropical and subtropical zones.
Sexual reproduction takes place in ticks while asexual reproduction
occurs in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.
This means that sex must be associated with profound advantages, while asexual reproduction
must have significant evolutionary consequences."
Abstract.--The paradox of sex is one of biology's great evolutionary questions, particularly in those species that are fully capable of sexual and asexual reproduction
. To quantify how fitness varies between these two modes of reproduction, we explored lifetime fecundity in Megaphasma dentricus, the giant walking stick of North America.
In other experiment, the effect of tested host plants on the fecundity and possibility of asexual reproduction