aspirin


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Related to aspirin: Paracetamol, Baby aspirin

aspirin,

acetyl derivative of salicylic acid (see salicylatesalicylate
, any of a group of analgesics, or painkilling drugs, that are derivatives of salicylic acid. The best known is acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin. Now often made synthetically, they were originally derived from salicin,
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) that is used to lower fever, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and thin the blood. Common conditions treated with aspirin include headache, muscle and joint pain, and the inflammation caused by rheumatic fever and arthritis. Aspirin is believed to act against fever, pain, and inflammation by interfering with the synthesis of specific prostaglandinsprostaglandin
, any of a group of about a dozen compounds synthesized from fatty acids in mammals as well as in lower animals. Prostaglandins are highly potent substances that are not stored but are produced as needed by cell membranes in virtually every body tissue.
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 in the body. Because of its ability to inhibit the formation of blood clots, aspirin is also used in low doses to prevent heart attack and stroke in persons with cardiovascular disease and to control unstable angina. The drug's usefulness in preventing certain cancers, the dangerous high blood pressure that sometimes occurs during pregnancy (toxemia), and migraine headaches is also under investigation.

Normal dosage may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or gastrointestinal bleeding. Large doses cause acid-base imbalance and respiratory disturbances and can be fatal, especially in children. Aspirin also has been linked to the development of Reye's syndrome (a combination of acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of internal organs) in children who have taken it for viral infections. Acetaminophenacetaminophen
, an analgesic and fever-reducing medicine. It is an active ingredient in many over-the-counter medicines, including Tylenol and Midol. Introduced in the early 1900s, acetaminophen is a coal tar derivative that acts by interfering with the synthesis of
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 (Tylenol), which does not cause gastric irritation but does lower fever and relieve pain, is often substituted for aspirin.

Aspirin, although usually made synthetically now, was originally derived from salicin, the active ingredient in willow bark. Willow bark had been used for centuries in folk medicine in certain parts of the world. Acetylsalicylic acid was first prepared by the German chemist Felix Hoffmann, an employee of Friedrich Bayer & Co., in 1897. It is now the active ingredient in many over-the-counter preparations; estimates put American consumption at 80 billion tablets annually.

See analgesicanalgesic
, any of a diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. Analgesic drugs include the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, acetaminophen, narcotic drugs such as morphine, and synthetic drugs with morphinelike action such as meperidine
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.

aspirin

[′as·prən]
(organic chemistry)

aspirin

1. a white crystalline compound widely used in the form of tablets to relieve pain and fever, to reduce inflammation, and to prevent strokes. Formula: CH3COOC6H4COOH
2. a tablet of aspirin

Aspirin

(language, tool)
A freeware language from MITRE Corporation for the description of neural networks. A compiler, bpmake, is included. Aspirin is designed for use with the MIGRAINES interface.

Version: 6.0, as of 1995-03-08.

ftp://ftp.cognet.ucla.edu/alexis/.
References in periodicals archive ?
Lack of association between gene sequence variations of platelet membrane receptors and aspirin responsiveness detected by the PFA-100 system in patients with coronary artery disease.
Why the turnaround on low-dose aspirin for healthy adults?
The bottom line is that daily aspirin for prevention is definitely not for everyone and perhaps not for anyone except those who have established vascular disease or are at high risk for vascular disease and low risk for bleeding.
The ASPREE trial involved 19,114 relatively healthy people, ages 70 and older, in the United States and Australia, including 9,525 who received 100 milligrams (mg) of enteric-coated aspirin a day and 9,589 who were given a placebo daily.
In the ASPREE study of 20,000 adults ages 70 and older, daily aspirin had no effect on the composite outcome of death, dementia and disability.
"This meant guidelines changed so we now only prescribe aspirin for people who have already had a heart attack or stroke or have a high risk of one."
What to do Don't take a daily low-dose aspirin if you're 70 or older and healthy, unless your doctor says otherwise.
Talk with your doctor before starting a daily aspirin regimen.
Researchers looked at the participants' use of aspirin (325 milligrams), low-dose aspirin (100 milligrams or less), non-aspirin NSAIDs and acetaminophen.
Aspirin is one of the most widely used medications in the world.
A 2017 study in Breast Cancer Research found a "protective association" (not absolute proof) between low-dose aspirin and a lower risk of breast cancer.