aspirin

(redirected from aspirins)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial.

aspirin,

acetyl derivative of salicylic acid (see salicylatesalicylate
, any of a group of analgesics, or painkilling drugs, that are derivatives of salicylic acid. The best known is acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin. Now often made synthetically, they were originally derived from salicin,
..... Click the link for more information.
) that is used to lower fever, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and thin the blood. Common conditions treated with aspirin include headache, muscle and joint pain, and the inflammation caused by rheumatic fever and arthritis. Aspirin is believed to act against fever, pain, and inflammation by interfering with the synthesis of specific prostaglandinsprostaglandin
, any of a group of about a dozen compounds synthesized from fatty acids in mammals as well as in lower animals. Prostaglandins are highly potent substances that are not stored but are produced as needed by cell membranes in virtually every body tissue.
..... Click the link for more information.
 in the body. Because of its ability to inhibit the formation of blood clots, aspirin is also used in low doses to prevent heart attack and stroke in persons with cardiovascular disease and to control unstable angina. The drug's usefulness in preventing certain cancers, the dangerous high blood pressure that sometimes occurs during pregnancy (toxemia), and migraine headaches is also under investigation.

Normal dosage may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or gastrointestinal bleeding. Large doses cause acid-base imbalance and respiratory disturbances and can be fatal, especially in children. Aspirin also has been linked to the development of Reye's syndrome (a combination of acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of internal organs) in children who have taken it for viral infections. Acetaminophenacetaminophen
, an analgesic and fever-reducing medicine. It is an active ingredient in many over-the-counter medicines, including Tylenol and Midol. Introduced in the early 1900s, acetaminophen is a coal tar derivative that acts by interfering with the synthesis of
..... Click the link for more information.
 (Tylenol), which does not cause gastric irritation but does lower fever and relieve pain, is often substituted for aspirin.

Aspirin, although usually made synthetically now, was originally derived from salicin, the active ingredient in willow bark. Willow bark had been used for centuries in folk medicine in certain parts of the world. Acetylsalicylic acid was first prepared by the German chemist Felix Hoffmann, an employee of Friedrich Bayer & Co., in 1897. It is now the active ingredient in many over-the-counter preparations; estimates put American consumption at 80 billion tablets annually.

See analgesicanalgesic
, any of a diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. Analgesic drugs include the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, acetaminophen, narcotic drugs such as morphine, and synthetic drugs with morphinelike action such as meperidine
..... Click the link for more information.
.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

aspirin

[′as·prən]
(organic chemistry)
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

aspirin

1. a white crystalline compound widely used in the form of tablets to relieve pain and fever, to reduce inflammation, and to prevent strokes. Formula: CH3COOC6H4COOH
2. a tablet of aspirin
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

Aspirin

(language, tool)
A freeware language from MITRE Corporation for the description of neural networks. A compiler, bpmake, is included. Aspirin is designed for use with the MIGRAINES interface.

Version: 6.0, as of 1995-03-08.

ftp://ftp.cognet.ucla.edu/alexis/.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)
References in periodicals archive ?
Two large studies have added to growing concern about low-dose aspirin use as a primary preventative.
In both studies, the benefits of aspirin increased with additional risk factors, such as older age or obesity, an indication of the importance of taking personal considerations into account in assessing the risks and benefits of low-dose aspirin in individual cases.
Aspirin is an anticoagulant that helps suppress the clotting action of blood, which makes it beneficial for people who are at high risk for blockages that lead to heart attacks or iscbemic strokes.
What we have finally shown is that aspirin has a major preventative effect on cancer but this doesn't become apparent until years later.
Once the trial finished its treatment stage in 2007 there was no difference between those who had taken aspirin and those who had not.
Destruction of prostaglandins by aspirin destroys the stomach lining and inhibits replacement of the mucous lining.
Non-fatal side-effects, such as internal bleeding and cataracts, are significant after years of aspirin use.
"There is a lot of data that suggests a connection between inflammation and cancer and we know aspirin can help reduce inflammation."
COX-1 plays a role in how platelets form in the bloodstream and aspirin can help make platelets less sticky and reduce the risk of clot formation.
Most drugstores sell chewable aspirin. Whether such tablets would cause tooth damage if chewed but then promptly washed down with water remains unknown, Grace says.