training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Evaluation of an assertiveness training program on nursing and medical students' assertiveness, self-esteem, and interpersonal communication satisfaction.
Assertiveness training is not for everyone, nor is it all or nothing.
Because assertiveness training is a popular strategy currently promoted to deal with workplace violence (e.g., Milstead 1996, Mimura & Griffiths 2003), the ways in which the nurses' assertiveness affects their experience of, and their likely reactions to, verbal abuse, was also examined.
The third example of the imitation focus is the wave of assertiveness training for women that began in the early 1970s.
Miss Green, 36, of Manchester Road, Tower Hamlets, east London, was twice promoted before she received stress counselling, paid for by the company, in March 2000, and assertiveness training.
Assertiveness training can be beneficial in learning to do this (20).
Everything from computer skills to English, maths, first aid, food hygiene, counselling and assertiveness training has been studied at Valley House, in Bell Green Road, Coventry.
Interpersonally focused cognitive behavioral interventions, such as assertiveness training, couples and family interventions, and social skills training may be helpful in addressing relational and social issues in work-related amputation.
Individual and group counseling strategies should be implemented to assist students with self-mutilation along with the accompanying issues of self-esteem, grief, loss, divorce, assertiveness training, and anger.
The six modalities included community reintegration activities, problem solving activities, empowerment/self-esteem experiences, exercise/fitness, games, and assertiveness training. The eleven facilitation techniques included leisure education, social skills training, stress management, resocialization, cognitive retraining, therapeutic community, group therapy, sensory stimulation, reality orientation, and remotivation.
The program also employs assertiveness training so that individuals speak up and state information persistently until the problem, a proposed action, and a decision are understood by all parties.
We expected that an assertiveness training program would positively affect the social competencies of Italian high school students about to make the transition to the university.