In a large study including 1448 children with headache, 82.3% had a normal eye examination, while refractive errors, amblyopia, and strabismus were found in 15.0%, 3.6%, and 7.3%, respectively.13 In another study, headache was reported in 23.1% of schoolchildren and it was concluded that asthenopia
was significantly associated with uncorrected visual acuity and myopia among schoolchildren.14 Another study conducted on child laborers working in gem polishing industries revealed that excessive near work lead to asthenopia
or eye strain in as many as 32.2% children.15 We found a significant number of children with headache suffering from uncorrected ametropia.
Engle, "Is all asthenopia
the same?" Optometry and Vision Science, vol.
Similar observations were reported by Griffith , who stressed that small astigmatism errors were responsible for more severe ocular asthenopia
. Cogan  also stated that small refractive errors, especially hypermetropia and astigmatism, may cause headache.
is seldom serious and usually improves with rest, limiting prolonged reading and near work on computers or digital devices, as well as using computer-specific glasses.
Effect on asthenopia
of high-crocetin-content Gardenia jasminoides Ellis extraction.
Among ocular causes, asthenopia
was a major entity as 62(16.36%) asthenopic patients presented with refractive errors.
Bhanderi et al (4) observed statistically significance between asthenopia
and the level of top of computer screen from the eye level.
Adaptation to prism-induced heterophoria in subjects with abnormal binocular vision or asthenopia
. Am J Optom Physiol Opt.
Astaxanthin offers a health benefit for asthenopia
(i.e., eye fatigue) supported by research.
Moreover, in a previous human clinical trial conducted to assess the effect on asthenopia
, crocetin was reported to improve not only asthenopia
, but also the subjective symptoms related to sleep (Kajita et al.
Eye fatigue, or asthenopia
, is an eye condition characterized by several symptoms including eye weakness, eye irritation, and poor accommodation.
It is understood that BV disorders can cause asthenopia
, (34) and interestingly they have also been linked to dry eye.