The loss of ASPM leads to a premature switch from symmetric to asymmetric cell division
, decreasing the number of postmitotic neurons in the developing cortex, reflected in a reduced cortical surface area and a simplified gyral pattern.
Asymmetric Cell Divisions
in the Transition from Stem Cells to Transit-Amplifying Cells
This patterning results from asymmetric cell divisions
in the leaf epidermis.
During female germ cell meiosis, asymmetric cell divisions
take place to ensure that most of the maternal stores are retained within the oocyte, resulting in the formation of daughter cells with different sizes: the large oocyte and the small polar bodies.
With special focus on epidermal skin studies, they discuss important aspects of TACs such as gene expression profiles, division rates, asymmetric cell division
, and environmental cues that may regulate their behavior.
A study jointly led by laboratories in the Institute of Biotechnology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) investigated whether stem cells may also use asymmetric cell division
to reduce accumulation of cellular damage.
Asymmetric cell division
is unique aspect of stem cells in which a cell gives rise to two genetically identical cells but functionally different cells.
"For asymmetric cell division
in animals, we know many of the proteins that control the process, but plants just don't make any of those proteins," Bergmann said.
Some examples of specific topics include derivation and manipulation of murine embryonic stem cells, efficient gene knockdowns in human embryonic stem cells using lentiviral-based RNAi, ex vivo megakaryocyte expansion and platelet production from human cord blood stem cells, isolation and manipulation of mammalian neural stem cells in vitro, regeneration of skin and cornea by tissue engineering, template DNA- strand co-segregation and asymmetric cell division
in skeletal muscle stem cells, derivation of contractile smooth muscle cells from embryonic stem cells, and reprogramming of liver to pancreas.
Moreover, a specific spatial structure within a compartment and asymmetric cell divisions
can also reduce the effective population size (Michor et al., 2003c).
Examples of specific topics include mechanisms of lipid transport involved in organelle biogenesis in plant cells, molecular circuitry of endocytosis at nerve terminals, vertebrate endoderm development and organ formation, signaling in adult neurogenesis, quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in single cells, mechanisms shaping the membranes of cellular organelles, coordination of lipid metabolism in membrane biogenesis, genetic control of bone formation, and asymmetric cell divisions
and asymmetric cell fates.