We now describe a minimal set of extensions to the network interface that can be used to remove the need for asynchronous protocol
processing from the Base (HLRC) protocol we used in the previous section [Bilas et al.
In general, the stronger the agreement achieved by an asynchronous protocol
, the easier it is to understand and use the protocol.
This paper proposes a new asynchronous protocol
named EP-MAC for small energy consumption and short end-to-end delay in wireless sensor networks (WSNs).
Existing duty cycling energy-efficient MAC protocols can be categorized into two types: synchronous and asynchronous protocols
attempt to conserve energy by allowing sensor nodes to operate independently with a minimum of complexity and without clock synchronization.
The asynchronous protocols
can be classified into two categories: sender-initiated such as B-MAC , X-MAC , and AS-MAC  and receiver-initiated such as RI-MAC , A-MAC , PW-MAC , and CyMAC .
This is why the Muller element (or C-element) is extensively used in asynchronous logic and is considered as the fundamental component on which is based the 4-phase and 2-phase asynchronous protocols
Quorums, satisfying the Rotation Closure Property, guarantee the intersection even if the cycles of the CRs are not aligned and, therefore, can be used in asynchronous protocols
. The torus QS , exploited in this work, represents an intuitive and simple method to employ where a quorum set is chosen by selecting a column of an r x s rectangular
The SA switches can be controlled via synchronous or asynchronous protocols
. The self-sensing Legacy Mode[TM] automatically recognizes the initialization sequence of previous LCD keys and configures the SA Switches to accept control by existing hardware and software systems.