Retained secretions increase risk for bacterial infection and colonization, pneumonia, atelectasis
, other lung tissue damage, respiratory insufficiency and, ultimately, respiratory failure.
This leads to a reduction in sigh volume and expiratory force resulting in chronic hypoventilation, mild hypercarbia and ineffective cough, predisposing the individual to atelectasis
and pneumonia. Thoracic injuries also disrupt or weaken innervation to the thoracic and abdominal muscles diminishing primarily expiratory capacity contributing to ineffective cough and secretion retention.
This occurs because only a specific portion of the alveoli and terminal airways are expanded against a background of atelectasis
in the remainder of the lung.
The complication observed in a descending order were pleural effusion/ hemothorax (18/25), respiratory failure needing ventilatory support (9/25), atelectasis
(3/25), pneumonia (2/25), and pulmonary embolism (2/25).
(16.7%) was the most common complication in the study by Tania Principi et al  followed by post extubation stridor (13.3%).
Interestingly, left upper lobe atelectasis
, which is present in this case, seen on chest radiographs in the form of the luftsichel sign, is not a common imaging description in PPL.
The rate of needing NIV was still high in COG as well as the rate of reintubation (P < 0.05).There was no significant difference in the rate of hypercapnia, atelectasis
, and suspected pneumonia (Table 2).
He was extubated following improvement of the atelectasis
and obstructive pneumonia (Figure 2(c)).
Other characteristics of tumors that are classified as T2 include visceral pleural (PL1, 2) involvement, any atelectasis
, pneumonitis, and involvement of main bronchus without touching the carina (Fig.
Several methods for the treatment of atelectasis
have been studied, with most investigations using acute alveolar recruitment maneuvers (3,9,10).
The disease usually presents with nodular lesions and may also manifest as atelectasis
or pneumonic consolidation (2, 6).
and pleural effusion are common after coronary artery bypass graft surgery 24.