In comparison with conventional semiconductors, the very close (sub-nanometre) proximity of a ferroelectric's electron dipole moment to the electron gas in the atomic crystal
ensures more effective switching, overcoming limitations of conventional semiconductors where the conducting channel is buried tens of nanometres below the surface.
Graphene is a two-dimensional atomic crystal
made up of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice.
This new class of superlattices alternates 2D atomic crystal sheets that are interspaced with molecules of varying shapes and sizes.
The new method to create monolayer atomic crystal molecular superlattices uses a process called "electrochemical intercalation," in which a negative voltage is applied.
The researchers first demonstrated the new technique using black phosphorus as a base 2D atomic crystal material.
The diffraction pattern uniquely describes the atomic crystal
Solitons have been observed, created and exploited in many systems, including light waves in optical-fiber telecommunications, the vibrational waves that sweep through atomic crystals
, and even "atom waves" in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), an ultracold state of matter.
Professor Novoselov said: "We are excited about the new physics and new opportunities which are brought to us by heterostructures based on 2D atomic crystals. The library of available 2D crystals is already quite rich, covering a large parameter space.
"We are sure that as we research more into the area of 2D atomic crystals we will be able to identify more of such complimentary materials and create more complex heterostructures with multiple functionalities.