Markowitz W (December 1962) The atomic time
And although its tone and premise seem straightforward, by the end of the article the point of view becomes clear: at each stage in the evolution of timekeeping we have taken another step away from the sun as a measure of time, toward "a more uniform, accessible, or convenient standard." The next step might be simply moving to atomic time, "a disassociation of civil time from solar time altogether....
The satellites don't count leap seconds, but because the system was launched after nine leap seconds had already been added to UTC, GPS time lingers in a purgatory between pure atomic time and UTC.
So it's not true that there's no time like the present, because it might have been that moment 30 seconds ago if you're on Coordinated Universal Time and I'm on International Atomic Time
If leap seconds were abandoned, noon atomic time might eventually correspond to sunset on Earth.
The biggest challenge in keeping Earth time and atomic time in harmony is that Earth doesn't decelerate steadily.
He said the rotation of the Earth had sped up a bit when compared to the 70s, but it was still going slower when compared to the atomic time
Leap seconds were introduced in the early 1970s to occasionally correct for those variations between solar and atomic time. Like the leap day, this is an internationally agreed-upon event that happens either on Dec.
The leap second has long caused debate among member countries of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), with some arguing for it to be eliminated in favor of the exclusive use of atomic time.
These national standards are averaged to produce International Atomic Time
and Universal Coordinated Time, which are used as time scales worldwide for such critical processes as global communications, satellite navigation and surveying, and time stamping for the computerized transactions of financial and stock markets.
Without leap seconds, the difference between atomic time
and rotation-based time would separate by 1 second every 500 days.
However, the invention of atomic clocks defined a much more precise "atomic time
" scale and a second that is independent of the earth's rotation.