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Related to atonement: Day of Atonement


the reconciliation, or "at-one-ment," of sinful humanity with God. In Judaism both the Bible and rabbinical thought reflect the belief that God's chosen people must be pure to remain in communion with God. The Bible prescribed Temple sacrifice for the removal of sin and uncleanliness. The prophets taught that outward sacrifice must be accompanied by interior purification to be complete. With the destruction of the Temple and the consequent cessation of the sacrifice focus came to be placed on the religious life of the individual who sought to be reconciled with God through prayer, repentance, charity, and suffering. In the Jewish calendar, atonement for all but very serious sins came on the Day of Atonement (see Yom KippurYom Kippur
[Heb.,=day of atonement], in Judaism, the most sacred holy day, falling on the 10th day of the Jewish month of Tishri (usually late September or early October). It is a day of fasting and prayer for forgiveness for sins committed during the year.
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). In Christian theology, various doctrines of atonement have been advanced in history, all of which give central place to the life and death of Jesus. The classical theory of atonement, widely accepted in the early Church, depicted Jesus as the divine victor in a cosmic struggle with the devil for rights over the human soul. In medieval Latin theology emphasis shifted from the divine to the human side of Jesus. The most widely held theory at this time, often called vicarious atonement, was first stated by St. AnselmAnselm, Saint
, 1033?–1109, prelate in Normandy and England, archbishop of Canterbury, Doctor of the Church (1720), b. Aosta, Piedmont. After a carefree youth of travel and schooling in Burgundy he became a disciple and companion of Lanfranc, the famed theologian and prior
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 in Why God Became Human (1197–98): only human beings can rightfully repay the debt which was incurred through their willful disobedience to God, although only God can make the infinite satisfaction necessary to repay it; therefore God must send the God-man, Jesus Christ, to satisfy both these conditions. Anselm's doctrine, slightly altered or elaborated, has become part of Roman Catholic theology and of that of many Protestant churches. In another theory of atonement emphasis is placed on God's unconditional mercy and on the gradual growth toward union with God as inspired by Christ's selfless example. This theory was given its standard form by Peter AbelardAbelard, Peter
, Fr. Pierre Abélard , 1079–1142, French philosopher and teacher, b. Le Pallet, near Nantes. Life

Abelard went (c.1100) to Paris to study under William of Champeaux at the school of Notre Dame and soon attacked the ultrarealist
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 in the 12th cent. Here the juridical concept is replaced by an organic and social concept. The tendency today in the Church is not to regard any single interpretation of atonement as all-embracing but to view Christ's atoning work from a variety of vantage points.


See G. Aulén, Christus Victor (tr. 1931); F. W. Dillistone, The Christian Understanding of Atonement (1968).


Murgatroyd, Sir Despard
atones for each of his daily crimes by performing a good deed every afternoon. [Br. Opera: Gilbert and Sullivan Ruddigore]


1. Christian theol
a. the reconciliation of man with God through the life, sufferings, and sacrificial death of Christ
b. the sufferings and death of Christ
2. Christian Science the state in which the attributes of God are exemplified in man
References in periodicals archive ?
Anselm of Canterbury provided the definitive Catholic interpretation of atonement.
My atonement was leading the military and the police during the Edsa People Power Revolution from the 22nd to 25th of February in 1986.
Essential to the book's concept of atonement is personal and societal recognition of wrongdoing, pain, and loss.
When Atonement came to town, the seafront was transformed and hundreds of locals took part in filming as "extras".
From the perspective of evolution, it is not the traditional doctrine of original sin which is problematic but instead original righteousness, an Eden to which Christ's atonement will return humanity (62).
However, I believe that Atonement, his best known and most highly regarded novel, is striking not for the faith it presents to the reader but rather for the manner in which it obviates faith by cutting off all possible means of redemption.
He also explores the related notions of Jesus' high priesthood and atonement work in Hebrews.
1) Recent critical efforts to distance Milton from penal-substitutionary atonement parallel the critical situation concerning Milton's Samson and his relation to Milton's Son in Paradise Regained.
As Alabama Baptists seek to be true to Scripture, we affirm the essential and historic Christian doctrine of substitutionary atonement," they wrote, referring to the doctrine that Jesus died as a substitute for humankind.
Ronan, 18, shot to fame starring alongside James McAvoy in Atonement and played a teenage assassin in Hanna.
While much contemporary theology dismisses patristic and medieval atonement theologies, Kotsko cogently argues that these theologies have a great deal to offer current attempts of rethinking the sociopolitical character of sin and redemption.
Denny Weaver presented an argument for understanding atonement in what he termed narrative Christus Victor, which "encompasses victory in both human historical and cosmic realms and emphasizes Jesus' life and ministry" (23), and that Weaver then placed in conversation with black, feminist, and womanist theologies.