Transthoracic echocardiogram on day of life one confirmed the diagnosis of Rastelli type A complete AVSD with a large atrial septal defect and a moderate ventricular septal defect, a balanced common atrioventricular valve
with mild right and trace left atrioventricular valve
regurgitation, and a patent foramen ovale (Figures 3(c) and 3(d)).
The length of right atrioventricular valve
and left cusp of left atrioventricular valve
was more in control group A3 than that of experimental group B3; however, this difference was not statistically significant.
The cleft in the left side of the common atrioventricular valve
, often erroneously called a cleft in the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve, is not easily repaired.
As clinical worsening is often caused by progressive systemic AV valve regurgitation, timely systemic atrioventricular valve
replacement may offer the best prevention of further deterioration and may postpone or even prevent the need for HTx.
Avian heart anatomy differs in many aspects from its mammalian counterpart, but the RVOT is similar in both taxonomic groups, (10) except that the singular right atrioventricular valve
functionally replaces the supraventricular crest.
Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) is characterized by transposed great arteries and inverted ventricles, atrioventricular valves
, and conduction system but normal atrial situs.
After 2 months of the primary surgery, the patch dehiscence was noted along with left atrioventricular valve
regurgitation on 2D echocardiography.
The echocardiographic diagnosis for thefirst CHD recipient was viscera in versus, asplenia syndrome, totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection (supracardiac type), complete atrioventricular septal defect (Rastelli A type) with severe common atrioventricular valve
regurgitation, single atrium, left ventricular dysplasia, double outlet of right ventricle, and pulmonary stenosis.
Figure-1: Day 7 control chick heart showing two cusps of left atrioventricular valve
(1), interatrial septum (IAS), interventricular septum (IVS), right atrioventricular valve
(2), left atrium (LA), right atrium (RA ) left ventricle (LV ) and right ventricle (RV) (Low magnification-4x) Haematoxylin and Eosin staining.
S1 is a slightly low-pitch sound that is heard the loudest at the apical region as the result of the closure of atrioventricular valve
while S2 is a slightly high-pitch sound heard at the apical region as the result of the closure of arterial valve.7
Population-based studies have allowed identification of many factors associated with poor clinical outcomes, such as low ventricular ejection fraction , high pulmonary vascular resistance [8, 9], atrioventricular valve
regurgitation [6,8], and ventricular diastolic dysfunction [10, 11].
Also in the bicaval technique, with the protection of the right atrial anatomy, the atrioventricular valve
function is also protected.