1978) delineated a three-pattern classification of infant-to-mother attachment styles: (a) secure infants (became agitated at their mothers' departure from the Strange-Situation room, were ecstatic on their mothers' return, and then settled down to explore the room); (b) insecure-anxious resistant/ambivalent infants (became distressed at their mothers' departure, remained agitated upon their mothers' return, and clung onto their mothers rather than venture into exploration of their environments); and (c) insecure-avoidant (were apathetic to both mother's departure and return).
This previous research on attachment has highlighted the role of the mother figure in parental attachment with children but has not sufficiently addressed father-child attachment (Ainsworth et al.
In addition, Brumariu and Kerns (2008) found that avoidant attachment decreased anxious and distressful emotions in novel social interaction environments.
Researchers seeking to understand how attachment influences social withdrawal (e.
Bartholomew (1990) established the four classification system for styles of attachment centered on four groupings attained through dividing the individual's intangible view of a person into negative (high dependency) or positive (low dependency) on one of the axis, whereas dividing the individuals' nonconcrete viewof another subject into negative (high evasion) or positive (low evasion) on the other axis.
Individuals with preoccupied attachment style have undergone unresponsive and inconsistent care-giving during the early stages of their lives.
Kirkpatrick (1999) posited that many Christians view themselves to be in relationship with God and there are, in fact, many similarities between this perceived relationship with God and child-caregiver attachment processes.
Indeed, attachment to God has proven to be a useful predictor of a number of diverse outcomes including coping, body image and well-being (e.
Rigid: Any attachment employing a mechanical locking action with the use of clasps, lingual arms, springs, ball and sockets etc.
Passive: An attachment that provides a free movement of the male when the abutment teeth are exposed to excessive forces.
As children begin to have more and more contact with the outside world and learn about the accessibility and responsiveness of their attachment
figure, they start to build their internal working models (Bowlby, 1988).
During past three decades, attachment
theory has been one of the most leading theories of social-emotional development in modern psychology stirring a great amount of research in the areas of developmental, clinical, and social psychology (Meyer and Pilkonis, 2001).