where [omega] is the angular frequency, the real part [alpha] and the imaginary part [beta] of the propagation constant are the

attenuation constant and phase constant respectively.

Finally, if one makes use of the following definition for the sound

attenuation constant,

where k is the

attenuation constant and n is the attenuation index.

In the line-voltage solution (1), [U.sub.0.sup.D] and [U.sub.0.sup.R] stand for the direct and reflected waves amplitudes as seen at the generator's node, while the complex propagation constant y of (2), determines the

attenuation constant [alpha] and the phase constant [beta].

The propagation constant contains both the

attenuation constant ([alpha]) and the phase constant ([beta]), which are useful to describe the dispersion behavior of the periodic structure.

The SA + FKM approach starts with the following five variables: initial temperature ([T.sub.0]), or final temperature ([T.sub.F]), number of iterations ([I.sub.iter]),

attenuation constant or annealing schedule ([beta]) and the threshold for stopping the clustering process([theta]).

where k is

attenuation constant value, [lambda] is wavelength (m), and [alpha] is absorbance coefficient ([cm.sup.-1]) which is obtained from the transmittance data using the following equation:

We suppose that a close value should be obtained for the equivalent IML structure in the same band, due to the correct prediction of the current 3D simulator, for instance the simulated and measured value of the PGL

attenuation constant (Figure 14).

The complex wave mode implies that the phase constant and the

attenuation constant of the propagation constant are both nonzero.

The

attenuation constant at 6 GHz is [alpha] = 0.66[k.sub.0].

Figures 3(a) and (b) show the

attenuation constant ([alpha]([omega])) and depth of penetration (d[([omega]).sub.p]) for two composites, one composed of rice husks and one composed of rubber from scrap tires, respectively.

The signal through a lossless interconnect, or an interconnect with an

attenuation constant with frequency, will persevere its rise time at the RX.