They compared the ionospheric turbulence over the Northern Hemisphere polar cap to that in the adjacent high-latitude auroral region
. The images revealed that "there are different kinds of irregularities in the auroral zone compared to the polar cap," according to coauthor Anthony Mannucci, such that "the effects on radio signals will be different in these two locations." Specifically, the disturbances in the auroral region
were larger in scale (about 1-40 kilometers in diameter) than those over the Arctic polar cap (about 1-8 kilometers in diameter).
Cassini encountered the auroral region
at a distance of 247 millionilometers from Saturn's cloud tops (about 4 times Saturn's radius).
(2) Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE): reveals the plasma structure in Jupiter's magnetosphere and auroral region
by measuring the distribution of low-energy electrons and the velocity and composition of ions.
Gurnett and his team from the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, along with international colleagues, found that the 10.8-hour component originates from Saturn's southern auroral region
, while the more recently discovered 10.6-hour component originates from the northern auroral region
Some of Jupiter's auroral regions
were highly complex, and so many earlier models predicted a very complex magnetic equator to match with this, but the magnetic equator is actually shaped much more like that of Earth.
Jovian Auroral JADE Measures the distribution, energy, and Distribution velocity of ions (5 eV to 50 KeV) and Experiment electrons (100 eV to 100 KeV) in auroral regions
Known as electrojets, these high-speed winds may explain how energy from the auroral regions
spreads around the planet.
Time-lapse images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope's imaging spectrograph reveal that within the auroral regions
, "flares come up for 10 seconds and become as bright as anything else and then go away to almost nothing," Clarke told SCIENCE NEWS.
Its auroral regions
brighten and contract as the solar-wind pressure increases.
The researchers think the oxygen atoms in the polar caps and the adjacent auroral regions
of the earth are given an extra boost by charged particles, originally from the solar wind, which are trapped by and travel down the earth's magnetic field lines toward the poles.
In this scenario, incoming oxygen ions from Jupiter's auroral regions
play a role.