(redirected from authorities)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Idioms.
Related to authorities: arthritis


1. a public board or corporation exercising governmental authority in administering some enterprise
2. Law
a. a judicial decision, statute, or rule of law that establishes a principle; precedent
b. legal permission granted to a person to perform a specified act
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


the established political rule within a community or STATE when this rule also possesses a grounding in one or more possible forms of political legitimacy. See LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in the broad sense of the word, the universally recognized informal influence of a person or organization in various spheres of social life (for example, education or science), based on knowledge, moral virtue, and experience (the authority of parents, doctors, and so forth). In the narrower meaning, it is one of the forms of exercising power. References are often made to the authority of the law or of certain rules or social norms; this means that the majority of the people among whom they operate accept their necessity.

Authority is expressed in the ability of the individual or group of individuals, the bearers of authority, to direct the actions or thoughts of another person or persons without resorting to force. The existence of authority is connected with man’s limited ability to evaluate rationally the many problems that arise because of the complexity of reality itself—hence, the necessity of accepting on faith the affirmations of the bearers of authority. This assumes the ability of the bearer of authority to substantiate his demands in principle.

In production, politics, and other spheres of social life, the activity of private individuals is largely determined by special bodies or officials who make decisions and control their execution. The right that they exercise and that their subordinates acknowledge constitutes authority; it is thus distinguished from other forms of exercising power, such as arbitrary rule.

The forms embodying authority and the spheres in which it operates depend on the historical level of society’s development and the ideological concepts that determine the sources and criteria for the legitimacy of the authority. In the tradition of the English philosopher Hobbes (1588–1679) and other utilitarians, the problem of authority emerges in the form of the dilemma of “freedom” versus “authority,” the latter term signifying only the authority of the supreme power, the “sovereign authority.” Hobbes saw in the “sovereign authority” the only means of saving society from anarchy, from the “war of all against all.” Anarchists, on the other hand, counterpose personal autonomy and the complete freedom of the individual from society against the notion of authority. The German sociologist M. Weber (1864–1920) proposed a typology under which authority may be based on rational arrangements—a formally defined system of rules concerning the means of gaining power and the limits of its use; traditions, in which case the legality of the system derives from the concept of it as something sacred and immutable; or so-called charisma, whereby authority involves personal devotion to the leader, who is endowed in the eyes of his followers with exceptional qualities of wisdom, heroism, or holiness. This sort of authority, according to Weber, is distinctive of prophets, apostles and political leaders. Tradition and charisma dominate in prebourgeois societies. Rational authority is established with the formation of the bourgeois society, although the other forms of authority do not disappear.

Analyzing the problem of authority, F. Engels called the views of anarchists and antiauthoritarians “antisocial”; he considered it “absurd . . . to depict the principle of authority as absolutely evil and the principle of autonomy as absolutely good” (“Ob avtoritete,” K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 18, p. 304). Engels argued that authority is necessary for any social system. “. . . Certain authority, however it is established, and on the other hand, certain subordination, are obligatory for us under those material conditions in which there is production and exchange of commodities regardless of the type of social organization” (ibid.). Engels noted that industry, transportation, or any form of organization is inconceivable without authority, without a dominant will represented by either one person or a defined body. In this regard, Engels emphasized that authority should be limited to those spheres of social life where it is indispensable (ibid.). At the same time, Marx and Engels decisively opposed “excessive faith” and “superstitious worship” of authority and also the cult of the personality (Marx and Engels, ibid., vol. 37, p. 384, and vol. 34, p. 241).

V. I. Lenin noted the necessity of authority and of discipline during labor (see Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 36, p. 203). Rejecting both the quasi-revolutionary attitude opposing all authority and the bureaucratic authority of bourgeois science and police-ridden politics, Lenin wrote that the working class needed authoritative leaders. The authority of such leaders, Lenin emphasized, should be based on their great knowledge and experience and their broad political and scientific outlook (see ibid., vol. 14, p. 226).


Engels, F. “Lafargu ot 30 dek. 1871.” (Letter.) K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 33, p. 309.
Engels, F. “Teoduru Kuno ot 24 ianv. 1872.” (Letter.) Ibid., p. 329.
Lenin, V. I. Ob avtoritete rukovoditelia: Sb. Moscow, 1963.
Weber, M. Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Sozial und Wirtschaftsge-schichte. Tubingen, 1924.
Strohal, R. Autorität, ihr Wesen und ihre Funktion im Leben der Gemeinschaft. Freiburg-Vienna, 1955.
Friedrich, C. J., ed. Authority. Oxford, 1958.




the ability to subject others to one’s will, to govern them, and to dispose of their actions.

Authority arose with the appearance of human society and, in one form or another, will always accompany its development. Authority is needed first of all to organize public production, which is unthinkable without subjugation of all its participants to a single will, as well as to regulate other human relations, connected with life and society. Before the appearance of classes and the state, authority had a social character: there was no administrative apparatus standing above society and no separate institutions of coercion. In the primitive clan society authority was exercised by all the members of the clan (tribe), who elected elders. With the appearance of classes and the state the consanguineous clan relations were destroyed, and the moral authority of the clan elders was replaced by the authority of public power, which separated itself from society and placed itself above it.

The term “authority” is used in various forms and aspects; there is parental authority, for example, and state authority, which in turn includes such concepts as supreme, constituent, legislative, executive, military, and judicial authority.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

administrative authority

The individual, official, board, department, or agency established and authorized by a city, county, state, or political subdivision created by law to administer and enforce the provisions of a code.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


throne indicative of religious power. [Folklore: Jobes, 307]
crook staff
carried as a symbol of office and authority. [Western Culture: Misc.]
bishop’s staff signifying his ruling power. [Christian Symbolism: Appleton, 21]
cross and ball
signifies that spiritual power is above temporal. [Heraldry: Jobes, 387]
headpiece worn as symbol of royal authority. [Western Culture: Misc.]
double bar cross
signifies archbishops, cardinals, and patriarchs. [Christian Iconog.: Jobes, 386]
attribute of Zeus, thus of authority. [Art: Hall, 109]
rods bundled about ax; emblem of magistrates, Fascists. [Rom. Hist.: Hall, 119; Ital. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 399]
small mallet used by judge or presiding officer to signal order. [Western Culture: Misc.]
in Christ child’s hands signifies power and dominion. [Christian Symbolism: de Bles, 25]
authoritative rules for playing cards and other games. [Misc.: Barnhart, 590]
symbolic of St. Peter’s spiritual authority. [Christian Symbolism: N.T.: Matthew 16:19]
Lord’s Anointed, the
Jewish or other king by divine right. [Judaism: O.T.: I Samuel 26:9]
ceremonial staff carried as a symbol of office and authority. [Western Culture: Misc.]
bishop’s headdress signifying his authority. [Christian Symbolism: EB VI]
cloud of light signifying might, divinely imparted. [Gk. Lit.: Iliad]
king of ancient Egypt, evoked by Shelley as an example of the perishability of power. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 749]
pectoral cross
worn by prelates on chain around neck. [Christian Iconog.: Child, 255; Jobes, 386]
color worn by persons of high rank. [Western Culture: Misc.]
wand or staff carried as a symbol of office and authority. [Western Culture: Misc.]
symbol of regal or imperial power and authority. [Western Culture: Misc.]
Stone of Scone
coronation stone where kings of Scotland were crowned. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 970]
seat of political or religious authority. [Western Folklore: Jobes, 1567]
triple cross
three upper arms; symbolizes authority of the pope. [Christian Iconog.: Jobes, 386]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In view of their similarity, the Board did not distinguish in its proposal the risk of a venture capital investment made under the new merchant banking authority from that made under other authorities. By and large, the nature of most major banking organizations' existing equity investments are similar to those made by nonbank venture capitalists and are similar to those likely to be made under merchant banking powers.
monetary authorities totaled $11.3 billion at the end of the quarter.
TEI believes that the competent authorities should be permitted to "roll over" settlements to subsequent years.
The League of Independent Public Authorities is composed of eight structures namely, the National Authority for the Prevention of Torture, the National Authority for the Protection of Personal Data, the Independent Higher Authority for the Elections, the Independent High Broadcasting Authority, the Access to Information Authority, the National Anti-Human Trafficking Authority, the National Anti-Corruption Authority and the Higher Authority for the Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
Religious authorities are often both epistemic and practical.
Meanwhile, two US pilots of a smaller Legacy executive jet that authorities believe clipped the Boeing arrived in Rio de Janeiro from the Amazon for medical and psychological tests at the Aerospace Medical Center as part of the investigation.
Sabata may have enjoyed considerable popular support and certainly largely rejected the introduction of Bantu Authorities, but he was still committed to an assertion of "royal" control in Thembuland.
found the American teachers they observed to frequently rely on various mathematical authorities including themselves and an ambiguous "they."
"These new technology transfer authorities are but a means to an end--not the end itself," Giambastiani said.
In-house tax advisers make an assessment--an informed but ultimately subjective judgment--of the nature of the issues and the scope and degree of potential and actual controversies with applicable tax authorities about the proper interpretation of the law.
In 2003, new legislation brought Germany up to a procedural level comparable to a growing number of other countries and provided an efficient tool for more structured tax audits by authorities. Failure to comply with the documentation requirements expands tax auditors' authority to estimate appropriate income adjustments.