Although one can speak of a continuous highly tensed discourse on immigrant integration (Schinkel, 2007; Van Reekum et al, 2012), the classification of the "four classic groups"; Turks, Moroccans, Antilleans, and Surinamese, in comparison to autochthones seems never to be problematized or replaced.
These classification systems in Germany and the Netherlands of the "native" or "autochthones" population and differentiation of "immigrant groups" are the basis of understanding the concept of "integration" in the field of immigrant integration monitoring in West-European nation-states.
Only indirectly becomes clear, through the texts accompanying the chart, that the y-axis represents both indicator, i.e., the average of educational level in society, and the reference category attached to this, which in this case is conceptualized in the text surrounding the image as "autochthones." These are given the value "0," which is the reference value for all "ethnic groups" and as such conveys the neutrality they represent in the image.
The term Ur-Nation might be an echo of Brosses's and Forster's conjectural histories of the destruction or displacement of primitive black autochthones
by more advanced Malays.
In this sense, then, autochthony can be said to be a neoliberal mode of belonging, one whose attempts to contain contestation are based on allegations that any demand for rights and/or resources by "non-Natives," including a radical rethinking of how rights and resources are thought of and distributed, is tantamount to a disregard for, and even colonization of, the autochthones
(52) City dwellers who consider themselves zanatany (autochthones
), or true coders, perceive city administrators as homogeneously composed of privileged, educated, elite Merina outsiders, who manage to secure desirable bureaucratic positions through access to kinship and to professional and ethnic networks.
In the light of the emergence and growth of communities in Yorubaland in particular, it could be said that some of the groups that claimed to be autochthones
were in fact earlier or more powerful group of settlers who were challenged by the hostile environment in which they found themselves to seek better accommodation elsewhere.
His travel stories, which he willingly shared with the villagers, were replete with cross-cultural encounters, from Malian state officials, to Ghanaian chiefs, to Nigerian Islamic scholars, to various other travellers and autochthones
. More than as a progressive ideology, in fact, Musa's wulliye was manifest as a practical experience of how to conduct oneself across socio-cultural boundaries, complete with a set of linguistic and interpersonal skills.
Farmers, by this point, were adamant that the corridor would be acceptable only if it were based on a calendar that suited their own needs as local autochthones and holders of customary land tenure.
Land, politics, intergenerational relations and the institution of the tutorat amongst autochthones and immigrants (Gban region, Cote d'Ivoire)' in R.
Much has been written about relations between newcomers and long-term residents or 'autochthones
' in rural areas, many accounts tracing a familiar trajectory from mutual agreement to antagonism as pressure on land increases and immigrants cease to acknowledge the authority of the 'firstcomers' who preceded them, and by whom they were allowed to settle.
The many historical and anthropological works on Akan societies such as Baule (Salverte-Marmier and Salverte-Marmier 1966; Viti 1995), Agni (Perrot 1982), Abron (Terray 1995) or Anno (Cutolo 2004) have shown quite clearly how these groups, mainly in the eighteenth century, subjugated and encompassed 'autochthones
' in their polities.