autoclave

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autoclave

1. a strong sealed vessel used for chemical reactions at high pressure
2. an apparatus for sterilizing objects (esp surgical instruments) or for cooking by means of steam under pressure
3. Civil engineering a vessel in which freshly cast concrete or sand-lime bricks are cured very rapidly in high-pressure steam

Autoclave

 

an apparatus for performing various processes under elevated temperatures and above-atmospheric pressure. The reaction is speeded up under these conditions, and the product yield is increased. Autoclaves may be rotary, rocking, horizontal, vertical, or columnar. If necessary, autoclaves can be provided with internal, external, or outboard heat exchangers; with mechanical, electromagnetic, or pneumatic agitating devices; and with instrumentation for measuring and controlling pressure, temperature, liquid fill level, and so forth. The design and basic parameters of a full-scale industrial autoclave vary widely, with capacities ranging from several dozen cm3 to hundreds of m3; autoclaves are designed to withstand pressures of up to 150MN/m3 (1,500 kgf/cm2) at temperatures of up to 500°C. Packless autoclaves driven by splashproof enclosed electric motors, requiring no seal, are promising for the chemical process industry. The rotor in this motor is mounted directly on the agitator shaft and is covered by an airtight, thin-walled enclosure of nonmagnetic material which does not prevent the magnetic lines of force from extending from the stator of the electric motor to its rotor.

Autoclaves are used in the chemical industry in the production of herbicides and organic semifinished products and dyes and in synthesis processes; in hydrometallurgy for leaching with subsequent recovery from solutions of non-ferrous and precious metals and rare elements; in the rubber industry for vulcanizing rubber products; in the canning industry for sterilizing canned goods; and in the construction materials industry. Autoclaves are also widely used in medicine.

REFERENCES

Korndorf, B. A. Tekhnika vysokikh davlenii v khimii. Leningrad-Moscow, 1952.
Planovskii A. N., and P. A. Gurevich. Apparatura promyshlen-nosti poluproduktov i krasitelei. [2nd ed.] Moscow, 1961.

G. M. VEKSLER and V. A. ZAITSEV

autoclave

[′ȯd·ō‚klāv]
(engineering)
An airtight vessel for heating and sometimes agitating its contents under high steam pressure; used for industrial processing, sterilizing, and cooking with moist or dry heat at high temperatures.

autoclave

A pressure vessel in which an environment of steam at high pressure may be produced, usually at a high temperature; used in the curing of concrete products and in the testing of hydraulic cement for soundness.
References in periodicals archive ?
Efficiency: Concrete slab on-grade thermal mass with radiant floor heating system, energy efficient exterior wall material (ten inch aerated autoclaved concrete block units R-30 insulating value) passive solar design, natural cross ventilation with convection cooling through house, reflective radiant barrier installed in roof, high efficiency hot water boiler for radiant floor system and domestic water, photovotaic power system, energy efficient lighting sources
0005 percent (weight/volume) contaminated soil slurry to 25 mg/L per day in slurries amended with 1 percent autoclaved soil.
This study was designed to determine: 1) if the addition of autoclaved soil (containing no microorganisms) or non-autoclaved soil (containing an indigenous microbial population) would enhance the degradation of PCP in treated wood by known PCP bacterial and fungal degraders; 2) if the reduction of PCP in treated wood corresponded to a reduction in toxicity; and 3) if PCP from the wood was degraded and not transferred to the soil.
Until 2001 in Austria, several tests were done on blood spots on native cards as a first step; the cards were then autoclaved and screened for phenylketonuria, and the leftovers were stored at room temperature.
He is a member of the Design Build Institute of America, the American Concrete Institute, the ACI Committee 523a, and the Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Products Association.
Overall manufacturing costs were virtually identical for the TP and BMI autoclaved parts, and both were 73% higher than the induction-bonded TP part.
And GE's LNP(a) Colorcomp(s) compounds and LIM 6040 silicones allow dental scalers manufactured by Hu Friedy to be autoclaved for over 1000 cycles.
Aerated Autoclaved concrete, used at a different residence designed by Dodson, is another form of alternative building material.