Based on this measure of food quality, autocracies
outperform both democracies and hybrid regimes at low levels of income, in line with the Ballard-Rosa analysis and contrary to the B&K study.
One implication of our research is that the dominant form of corruption in anocracies might be extortion, while in autocracies
mutually beneficial exchange.
Democracies channel funds to pro-democracy groups, or they demand that autocracies
change their behavior.
are particularly poorly prepared for a global economic crisis because they have weak domestic consumer markets and rely upon exports to survive.
Because autocratic governments have a vital interest in disputing liberal principles of interventionism, they will often resist efforts by the liberal international community to put pressure on other autocracies
around the world.
(21) Conversely, because autocracies
tend to be poor, the absence of regulation might simply reflect the absence of effective demand for it by an insignificant number of equity market participants.
For example, a number of countries (Belarus, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have regressed from oligarchies to autocracies
; and a number of democracies have regressed either to autocracies
(Azerbaijan) or to oligarchies (Armenia and Georgia).
exhibit self-enforcing rules and institutions that prevent protest and other activities aimed against the state.
Unlike dictatorships or autocracies
, such regimes do not tolerate rivals to themselves, whether free unions, associations, the press, political parties or religion.
While populism in mature democracies has not led to the mass murders seen in autocracies
, it has produced sporadic violence and policies that harm minority groups.
After all, Turkey does not boast the natural gas holdings that support other autocracies
in regions not so far-off from these lands.
But it is also possible to establish democracies in relatively poor countries, whose subsequent economic track records are at least as strong as those of economically dynamic autocracies
. And as they grow, democracies with low per-capita income do a better job than autocracies
in providing for the basic needs and welfare of their people.