training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The autogenic training session appeared to be most effective in showing a statistically significant change in decreased respiratory and pulse rates and increased peripheral skin temperature.
Autogenic training is also a simple relaxation training strategy that the students enjoyed and learned quickly.
Linden and Chambers (1994) analyzed 166 randomized clinical trials, evaluating the effects of various medications, weight reduction, sodium and alcohol restriction, physical exercise, calcium and potassium supplements, standard single-method (progressive relaxation training, autogenic training, meditation, and biofeedback) and standard multi-method relaxation therapy (combinations of aforementioned treatments), and individualized therapies (cognitive behavioral therapy, marital communication training, anger management, etc.) on blood pressure.
Autogenic training, a healing modality developed by a psychiatrist in the last century (and further perfected by many other clinicians over the decades; Luthe 1969), offers a process of self-development leading to improvements similar to those achieved via hypnosis and meditation.
Autogenic training's beneficial sensations can be brought on more quickly by creating verbal reflexes.
It has been shown that autogenic training, when used as an adjunct to physiotherapy, is more effective than physiotherapy alone in improving motor performances assessed as the UPDRS motor score in PD patients [46].
Effects of autogenic training on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing students.
The investigators advise that stress reduction and relaxation techniques (e.g., meditation, autogenic training, stress management training, and psychotherapy to learn to cope) should be recommended, not only as complementary to traditional treatments of vision loss, but possibly as preventive measures to reduce progression of vision loss.
He describes in more detail how Pzizz works: "dreamscapes engineered to lull your body into sleep" are paired with voiceovers "based on clinical sleep interventions, things like progressive muscle relaxation, clinical sleep hypnosis, breathing exercises and autogenic training", a technique that teaches your body to respond to verbal commands.
But Jon is a staunch advocate of the relaxation techniques invoked by both autogenic training and Transcendental Meditation.
He was provided with chronic pain education and stretching guidance, and acupuncture sessions provided by an acupuncturist, as well as autogenic training provided by a clinical psychologist.
"Enhanced Pain Management": a binaural audio CD and MP3 audiofile; 20-minute relaxation includes diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and autogenic training ($6).