training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
During the fourth intervention session, the students were taught autogenic training techniques.
Recent advance of autogenic training in clinical practice of psychosomatic medicine in Japan.
There has been a wealth of research into autogenics, much of which also refers to Biofeedback - a system created out of autogenic training methods incorporating the use of electrical equipment designed to monitor stress levels through respiration rates, skin temperature and blood flow.
Subsequent univariate F-tests for autohypnosis, autogenic training, breath control relaxation, blank meditation, bracing, centering, color for mood altering, cue words, focusing externally, focusing internally, goal setting, imagery/visualization, mantra meditation, music for psych-up, music for relaxation, positive selftalk, progressive muscle relaxation, performance recall, Transcendental Meditation(c), and thought stoppage were nonsignificant with F (1, 145) .
Added to the mission of self-discovery and self-actualization that psychotherapy embodies, techniques such as hypnosis, and its autoadministered modification, self-hypnosis, yoga, meditative disciplines in their various forms, and autogenic training can be utilized to activate the push to coveted personal change.
Table 3 Study of Interventions for Musculoskeletal Injury and Pain in Dancers Authors, Study Subjects and Setting Intervention Design, and Evaluated Country Noh, 20071 (9) Female ballet students Autogenic training at 2 Korean dance (n=12) and broad-based 48 week, institutes (n=45) aged coping skills training partially- 14-19 years with low including autogenic randomized, coping skills based on training, imagery, and 3 cohort study ACSI-28 pretest scores.
Schultz developed autogenic training to remove signs of tension and disturbance.
There are two simple ways of achieving this inner peace - Autogenic Training and visualisation - which, if you start practising them today, will enable you to keep your blood pressure down.
The effects of thermal biofeedback and autogenic training of cardiovascular reactivity: The joint USSR-USA behavioral hypertension treatment project.
At age 14, I took a six-week, evening course at the local college in a mind/body relaxation technique called Autogenic Training, in which one systematically learns to make parts of the body feel warm or heavy.
Anyone who leads a healthful life, whose bed is in a neutral location, and who restores or maintains psychoenergetic harmony (by means of Psychosomatic Energetics, autogenic training, yoga, and similar techniques) will not as a rule be much affected by electrosmog, as long as it does not exceed a certain intensity and quality of disturbance.
In a subsequent study, Noh and colleagues tested the intervention effects of imagery, self-talk, and autogenic training (a form of relaxation).