is the most common thyroid pathology in childhood and adolescence (7,8).
Pertaining to the disease course for autoimmune thyroiditis
a person may go through all phases that is, euthyroid, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid hence we cannot comment that the 60% of the cases are euthyroid as the patient may develop hyper or hypothyroidism at any particular time.
Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis
. Arch Neurol 2006; 63: 197-202.
(2016) Hypothyroidism-Associated Autoimmune Thyroiditis
and Papillary Thyroid Cancer.
As shown in detail in Table 2, autoimmune thyroiditis
was present in 48.4% of cases, while psoriasis in 17.6% and type I diabetes and dermatitis herpetiformis in 11%, respectively.
Duntas, "The Role of Iodine and Selenium in Autoimmune Thyroiditis
," Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol.
The characteristics of three patients with abnormal laboratory findings Diagnosis Age Gender FT3 FT4 TSH Anti-TPO Autoimmune thyroiditis
12 F 4.2 11.4 4.5 450 15 F 5.3 14.3 3.6 750 Subclinical hypothyroidism 10 F 6.2 16.2 22 <5 Diagnosis Anti-TG BMI Puberty Height (Tanner) Autoimmune thyroiditis
1200 20.82 2 <3p 524 29.86 3 3-10p Subclinical hypothyroidism <5 29.26 2 10-25p FT3 Normal range 3.0-9.0 pmol/L; FT4 Normal range 8.5-40.0 pmol/L; TSH Normal range 0.8-5.4 mIU/L; Anti-TG normal range 0-60 IU/L; Anti-TPO normal range 0-30 IU/L; BMI: body mass index; p: percentile; F: female; TSH: thyroid-stimulating hormone; Anti-TPO: anti-thyroid peroxidase; Anti-TG: anti-thyroglobulin; FT3: free triiodothyronine; FT4: free thyroxine
Furthermore, celiac disease might be frequently observed in subjects with obscure iron deficiency and celiac disease itself frequently accompanies autoimmune thyroid disease.24 As there is a significant association between Type-2 diabetes and chronic autoimmune thyroiditis
, and there were many patients with BTM and Type-2 diabetes, it was decided to include diabetes patients in the control group.25 Diabetes prevalence was comparable between the two groups.
* the autoimmune theory / the autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, which is suggested by the association between vitiligo and other autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune thyroiditis
, alopecia areata--there is limited evidence, though (Westerhof & d'Ischia 2007; Bologna et al 2012);
Mostly the results showed a higher incidence of elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and four times higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis
in PCOS subjects.
It is of note that one year before the hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed to have an autoimmune thyroiditis
with hypothyroidism, thus supporting a possible autoimmunity pathogenesis of the KFD and a relationship between these two pathologies, although only a few KFD cases with autoimmune thyroiditis
have been reported [3, 23, 24].
Abbreviations Anti-TPO-Ab: Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody ALT: Alanine aminotransferase ANA: Antinuclear antibody AST: Aspartate aminotransferase CSF: Cerebrospinal fluid EEG: Electroencephalogram FIRDA: Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity g: Gram GCS: Glasgow Coma Score HE: Hashimoto's encephalopathy HSV: Herpes simplex virus IU/ml: International units per milliliter mg: Milligram mg/l: Milligram per liter mm: Millimeter mmHg: Millimeters mercury mmol/l: Millimole per liter MRI: Magnetic resonant imaging PCR: Polymerase chain reaction SREAT: Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroiditis
T4: Thyroxine TSH: Thyroid stimulating hormone U/L: Units per liter.