Automatism


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automatism

[ȯ′täm·ə‚tiz·əm]
(biology)
Spontaneous activity of tissues or cells.
(medicine)
An act performed with no apparent exercise of will, as in sleepwalking and certain hysterical and epileptic states.

Automatism

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Automatism covers acts that are automatic in so far as they are not consciously produced. This would cover such things as automatic writing, drawing, painting, playing musical instruments, singing, and dancing. Frederick W. H. Myers divided automatism into two main types: motor automatism (active) and sensory automatism (passive). Motor automatism is movement of the tongue, head, or limbs, without guidance by the conscious mind. Sensory automatism is the external presentation of information received clairvoyantly or clairaudiantly. Rosemary Ellen Guiley points out that since ancient time automatisms have been attributed to spirits and to the gods.

The spirit paintings such as those done by the Bangs sisters are examples of automatism in which paintings were produced directly onto the canvases. The music of deceased masters played by Rosemary Brown is another example. Many such occurrences have been viewed by skeptics as examples of extrasensory perception or of secondary personalities coming through and producing information that has been long suppressed and forgotten. However, there are numerous cases of automatic writing which refute this explanation, producing material totally foreign to the automatist. A good example of this is the material that was produced by Pearl Curran, first by Ouija® board and then by automatic writing. Mrs. Curran, a St. Louis housewife, had sparse education and yet produced writings—over a period of more than seven years—which displayed detailed knowledge of life in the mid-1600s, both in England and in the American colonies. This was dictated by the spirit of a seventeenth century English woman named Patience Worth. It has been viewed as one of the finest examples ever of spirit contact.

Sources:

Buckland, Raymond: Buckland’s Book of Spirit Communications. St. Paul: Llewellyn, 2004
Guiley, Rosemary Ellen: The Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits. New York: Facts On File, 1992

Automatism

 

(1) In physiology, the capacity of an organ or of certain cells for rhythmic, periodic, or aperiodic activity without apparent connection with external, inciting causes. Some examples of automatism are heart contractions, looping of the intestines even when removed from the body, the fluttering of the cilia of certain epithelial cells, and the movement of protoplasm in plant cells. The cause of automatism is either the cyclic character of metabolic processes in the cells or, on a higher level of organization, the activity of systems of stimulated cells—for example, nerve cells located in the cardiac muscle or in the respiratory center of the brain. Another form of automatism, resulting from the strengthening of conditioned reflex connections, is stereotypical activity performed passively and mechanically—for example, the movement of the extremities in walking, the so-called associated movements of various groups of muscles (in the neck, trunk, or extremities), and other motor automatisms.

L. P. LATASH

(2) In psychology, an action performed with the almost complete absence of conscious control. In contradistinction to physiological processes (such as breathing and the working of the heart), which are originally involuntary, psychological actions proceed primarily under conscious control and are only gradually transformed, as learning proceeds, into automatic acts that become the basis for various kinds of habits. On the physiological level, automatism corresponds to the dynamic stereotype.

V. A. KOSTELOVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Although military courts have referred to automatism as a viable defense, the CAAF has not provided a firm definition.
But the prosecution argued Mr Thomas had been suffering from insane automatism caused by an internal condition.
Another truth is that automatism is a bedrock defence in our law (as the sine qua non of the non-pathological incapacity defence), and the above neurophysiological findings would surely reinforce the assertion that a particular accused acted in a state of automatism because his requisite brain circuits display significantly longer delays before reaching conscious awareness than those of 'normal' others, and therefore he could not consciously control his behaviour.
In Freedland's pieces, ontological dualism is overcome by a measure of automatism, physicalist reductivism by an appeal to autonomy.
This consultation aims to select service providers responsible for implementing the certification within the next job training groups - GFE 1 agricultural production and forestry, animal husbandry- GFE 4 equipment and building finishes- 6 GFE automatism mechanically- GFE 11 logging, woodworking- GFE 14 tertiary office specialized tertiary computing- GFE 16 paramedical, social work, personal care- GFE 17 hotel, restaurant, tourism, recreation ~- GFE 21 general training, education, land development, heritage, personal development.
The defence are also putting forward an alternative defence that if the jury find he did the killing, that he did it in the aftermath of an epileptic event, that he was labouring under an insane automatism.
I always thought surrealist automatism was overrated,' Phil says.
Automatism meets science fiction meets the sublime landscape in the one hundred works on paper (all Untitled, 2012) that, along with a single large painting in metal leaf on canvas dating from I 984, made up Roland Flexner's recent show.
I previously conducted a series of ESP-dissociation experiments in which participants made ESP responses through a form of motor automatism, random eye fixations on the elements in a matrix of symbols.
The defence argues that he was briefly suffering from a rare condition called automatism.
Given the numbing automatism of the major poetic ideologies on offer today--a mannered and hollow formalism, no more deserving of the name "conservative" than its political analogue; a positivistic and attenuated vanguardism, threatening ever more daily to collapse into its own brand of formalism; and the empty consumerist pluralism of the "postavant"--the ability of Clark and others like him to articulate and enact an alternative vision has the highest possible significance for our poetic moment.
Lawyer Audrey McGhee used the so-called ``zombie defence'' of automatism, claiming Dippie had not known what he was doing.