This conclusion is based on the following five seminal observations: (1) almost all autophagic vacuoles
of alternative autophagy were localized near the Golgi apparatus, (2) Golgi ministack formation preceded autophagosome generation, (3) some isolation membranes extended from the Golgi membranes, (4) trans-Golgi proteins were observed on autophagosomes and autolysosomes, and (5) the depletion of Golgi proteins inhibited alternative autophagy but not conventional autophagy.
Furthermore, MDC staining showed increased green fluorescence after PSO treatment suggesting the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles
Moreover, other studies indicate that accumulation of autophagic vacuoles
can precede apoptotic cell death (CUI et al.
containing myeloid inclusions and debris are found on histology and electron microscopy.
Morphology observation of cells exposed to ArtN and free artocarpin showed distinct features, whereby ArtN induced the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles
in hepatoma cells while free artocarpin treated cells revealed the same morphology features with untreated cells (Fig.
MDC staining for detecting autophagic vacuoles
 and increased LC3II expression were simple methods for autophagy assay.
In all cases, electron micrographs were reviewed for evidence of tubulofilamentous inclusions, autophagic vacuoles
, and mitochondrial defects.
We likewise observed several autophagic vacuoles
with double membranes containing disorganised mitochondrial cristae; sometimes, autophagic vacuoles
occurred close to the sarcolemma.
Likewise, granular cell tumors may arise in relation to the pituitary gland/stalk; however, these tumors owe their cytoplasmic granularity to numerous autophagic vacuoles
, not mitochondria.
These characteristic changes included extensive cytoplasm vacuolization, and some autophagic vacuoles
contained degraded organelles by transmission electron microscopy (Fig.
Parasites incubated in the presence of compound (3) showed ultrastructural changes, such as the appearance of mitochondrial swelling with a reduction in the density of the mitochondrial matrix and the presence of vesicles inside the mitochondrion, indicating damage and significant change in this organelle; abnormal chromatin condensation, alterations in the nuclear envelope, intense atypical cytoplasmic vacuolization, and the appearance of autophagic vacuoles
were also observed.
Type II programmed cell death or autophagic cell death involves the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles
(AV) in the cytoplasm of dying cells as well as enlargement of the mitochondrial mass.