Over longtime culture, dopaminergic neurons (DAn) differentiated from either ID-PD- or LRRK2-PD-iPSCs showed morphological alterations, including reduced numbers of neurites and neurite arborization, as well as accumulation of autophagic vacuoles
, which were not evident in DAn differentiated from Ctrl-iPSC.
In our study of MeHg-treated embryos, we observed cells with internal compartments delimited by membranes similar to autophagic vacuoles
Orexin A has been shown to induce the formation of autophagic vacuoles
, the lipidation of LC3-II, and the increase of beclin-1 expression in human colon cancer cells .
Thus, autophagic vacuoles
formation was induced following HSYA-SDT.
CuE Regulates the Presence of Autophagic Vacuoles
. Since CuE acts as a neuroprotective molecule but does not play an antioxidant role to promote neuronal survival in our post-mitotic model, we examined whether CuE could modulate autophagy, a cellular process allowing the degradation and recycling of cellular components, thus playing an important role in neuronal survival.
Colombo, "Induction of autophagy promotes fusion of multivesicular bodies with autophagic vacuoles
in k562 cells," Traffic, vol.
(c) Autophagy structure (white arrow) and autophagic vacuoles
(small black arrow) were also shown in the XXMD60 group.
During autophagy, however, lysosomes fuse with autophagic vacuoles
, resulting in an increase in the intensity and size of Lamp2 fluorescent puncta (Fig.
DCA (and the rest of reprogramming conditions, see below) caused a slight increase in the number of p62-positive autophagic vacuoles
at day 3 (Figures 3(c) and 3(d)), although it was not significant due to high SD between cells.
containing subcellular materials were observed in the ADR group, and the number of autophagic vacuoles
was decreased after treatment with API (Figure 3(a)).
Monodansylcadaverine (MDC), a fluorescent compound, was used as a tracer of autophagic vacuoles
were detected by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining.