cytolysosome

(redirected from autophagosome)
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cytolysosome

[¦sīd·ō′lī·sə‚sōm]
(cell and molecular biology)
An enlarged lysosome that contains organelles such as mitochondria.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Previous studies using yeast have identified more than 30 autophagy-related genes, among which 18 genes are essential for autophagosome formation and have mammalian homologs [15].
Furthermore, autophagosome formation, which fuses with lysosome for further degradation, is the major step for the autophagy process.
The change in autophagic proteins is consistent with the observation of increased autophagosome after exercise (He et al., 2012).
The researchers specifically looked at autophagosome levels.
In this process, a double membrane of isolation or phagophore is formed near to the target, which is then elongated, surrounding it, to later mature with the assimilation of a cytosolic charge forming the autophagosome. For the maturation to be effective, the autophagosome must be fused with early or late endosomes forming a structure called amphisome (33,34).
Therefore, to explore the underlying mechanism, the alterations of autophagy were tested through LC3B-II expression as lipidated LC3B-II is critical for the formation of autophagosome (30,31).
Transfected GFP-LC3 plasmid in SW480 cells showed that PPAR[alpha] silence decreased autophagosome formation and GFP-LC3 puncta (Figure 1(b)), which was consistent with the transmission electron microscopy analysis (Figure 1(c)).
The results indicated that the levels of LC3 and Beclin-1, which are key proteins required for autophagosome formation, and of Parkin and BNIP3L, which are important proteins in the mitophagy pathway, were significantly decreased in the model mice.
Beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3 (LC3) are required for autophagosome formation and maturation, one of the important steps for autophagy.
LC3B, the most widely used marker for revealing the presence of autophagosomes during autophagy activation, is attached to the autophagosome membrane, suggesting that the amount of LC3B closely correlates with the number of autophagosome [36, 37].
p62 and p62-bound polyubiquitinated proteins become incorporated into the completed autophagosome and are degraded in autolysosomes.