autotroph

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autotroph

(ôt`ətrōf'), in biology, an organism capable of synthesizing its own organic substances from inorganic compounds. Autotrophs produce their own sugars, lipids, and amino acids using carbon dioxide as a source of carbon, and ammonia or nitrates as a source of nitrogen. Organisms that use light for the energy to synthesize organic compounds are called photosynthetic autotrophs; organisms that oxidize such compounds as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to obtain energy are called chemosynthetic autotrophs, or chemotrophs. Photosynthetic autotrophs include the green plants, certain algae, and the pigmented sulfur bacteria (see photosynthesisphotosynthesis
, process in which green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria utilize the energy of sunlight to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll. Some of the plants that lack chlorophyll, e.g.
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). Chemotrophs include the iron bacteria, the nitrifying bacteria, and the nonpigmented sulfur bacteria (see chemosynthesischemosynthesis,
process in which carbohydrates are manufactured from carbon dioxide and water using chemical nutrients as the energy source, rather than the sunlight used for energy in photosynthesis. Much life on earth is fueled directly or indirectly by sunlight.
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). Heterotrophsheterotroph
, living organism that obtains its energy from carbohydrates and other organic material. All animals and most bacteria and fungi are heterotrophic. In contrast, autotrophs are organisms that use inorganic substances as energy sources and carbon dioxide as a carbon source.
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 are organisms that must obtain their energy from organic compounds.
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autotroph

[′ȯd·ō‚träf]
(biology)
An organism capable of synthesizing organic nutrients directly from simple inorganic substances, such as carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The pH of the soils selected, some of which had received lime, was in the range 4.8-5.3 (1/5 in [H.sub.2]O), well below the assumed optimum pH range for autotrophic AOB (Alexander 1977; Watson et al.
The presence of genetic variation indicates that alleles are available in adapted breeding materials that can improve early autotrophic cold tolerance.
Another issue is the relative importance of the effects of the low temperatures on autotrophic processes (less strongly affected) and heterotrophic processes and the repercussions they might have on the flow of dissolved organic matter in the marine ecosystem.
A third, but seldom addressed hypothesis, is that the partition of total biomass into autotrophic and heterotrophic components is influenced by organic carbon imports to the community which serve as substrates for heterotrophic growth (Jones 1992).
curvatus in the "autotrophic clade" has nitrogenase genes, but apparently, no CODH complex genes and may therefore require externally supplied acetate.
Total autotrophic bacteria (TAB) showed a high density during the sixth week, particularly in the treatments with intermediate probiotic concentration P1.0 and P2.0 (11 x [10.sup.5] and 21 x [10.sup.5] CFU [mL.sup.-1], respectively) (Fig.
Bulk soil pH has long been used to adjust potential nitrification rates in models, based on the observation that autotrophic nitrification rates tend to be lower on acidic soils.
Biologically fertilization of fish rearing pond means stimulation of primary productivity (planktons) through autotrophic and heterotrophic pathways which are preferred food for smaller fish in general and bigger in specific (Enamul et al., 1999).
The higher C[O.sub.2] emission from treatment B suggests that it is controlled by heterotrophic respiration whereas the lower C[O.sub.2] emission from treatment A suggests that it is regulated by autotrophic respiration (through photosynthetic activity and respiration in the rhizosphere).
Formally, NASC had no standard for Early Generation Seeds (EGS) in cassava, but with the advent of BASICS, there's now a technology onboard called semi autotrophic hydroponics.
It is the transformation of ammonia into nitrate by autotrophic nitrifying bacteria, depending on the concentrations of ammonia and nitrite, the carbon/nitrogen ratio, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, and organic and inorganic carbon (EBELING et al., 2006).
Biomining microbes used in bioleaching processes are mostly acidophilic, autotrophic and chemotrophic bacterial isolates that occur naturally in sulfide minerals.