Ground surface settlements in the perpendicular auxiliary plane have been studied by many scholars but mainly in the case of two-dimensional (2D) plane-strain states.
The ground surface settlements can be analyzed through the perpendicular auxiliary plane, parallel auxiliary plane, and angled auxiliary plane around the station excavation (Figure 1).
It can be observed that the settlements decrease continuously from the short-side center perpendicular auxiliary plane to the corner 45[degrees] direction auxiliary plane; however, the positions of the maximum ground surface settlements gradually shift away from the diaphragm wall.
In the process of transition from l = 0 m to the corner 45[degrees] direction, the ground surface settlements decrease further, but the positions of the maximum settlements moved farther away from the diaphragm wall, which is essentially the same as that of the long-side center perpendicular auxiliary plane without 3D effects.
Ground Surface Settlements within the Parallel Auxiliary Plane. Figure 5 shows the variations of ground surface settlements in the parallel auxiliary planes around the station excavation, where l represents the distance from the parallel auxiliary plane to the diaphragm wall.
(1) For the ground surface settlements, the surface settlement profiles in the perpendicular auxiliary plane are all trough-shaped at the short-side center, long-side center, and corner 45[degrees] direction.
Ground surface settlements can be studied through auxiliary planes perpendicular and parallel to the excavation, as well as through angled auxiliary planes at the excavation corner (Figure 1).
The project calls for them to develop a rocket-mounted shuttle about 30 meters long, that will ride piggyback on an auxiliary plane measuring about 65 meters long and equipped with giant wings and jet engines.
The engineers will design the airplane to operate everything automatically to enable it to return together with the auxiliary plane in the event it goes out of commission.