While average concrete
prices improved across the majority of markets, the price increases were insufficient to offset the impact of higher raw material and input costs.
The average concrete
strength with a 50% gangue content level under different water-cement ratios can be obtained through uniaxial compression tests of the gangue concrete sample groups 1-6, as noted in Figure 4.
In tension, a physically based approach is used such that average concrete
stresses are determined using equilibrium, compatibility, and constitutive relations applied on a cracked concrete element with three different regions as follows: an elastic, fully bonded region (b), a crack region (cr), and a bond-slip region (sl) where the slip between concrete and reinforcement occurs (Figure 5(b)).
For example, [D.sub.c] determined after 28 days of curing and 50 days of exposure to chloride solution will reflect the average concrete
properties regarding transportation by diffusion (i.e., from 28th day to 78th day).
The new Benchmark (Industry Average) Report presents impacts for average concrete
mixtures at the national level and in eight different regions.
However, due to simplified representation of stress distribution (average concrete
stresses in the section are assumed) it is impossible to model formation of secondary and splitting cracks, damage of concrete in front of the ribs, diffusion of tensile stresses from reinforcement to concrete.
There's a larger than average concrete
Costs to produce 1 kg of self-healing agent: To calculate the cost to produce 1 kg of self-healing agent one should take into consideration: * The encapsulation process * The addition of the required nutrients * The required amount of self-healing agent per [m.sup.3] of concrete Considering the following, one can calculate:: * An encapsulation cost of 40 [euro]/kg * The capsules do not increase the total weight of the final product * The addition of urea (20 g/kg) and Ca[Cl.sub.2] (35 g/kg) * The addition of 0,5% (w/w) of self-healing agent * An average concrete
density of 2400 kg/[m.sup.3] Encapsulated spores 475 [euro]/kg Self-healing product (encapsulated 480 [euro]/kg spores + nutrients) Quantity of self-healing agent 12 kg/[m.sup.3] Total cost 5760 [euro]/[m.sup.3] 3.
between centrelines of legs of the closed stirrups ([x.sub.1] and [y.sub.1]), the total area of longitudinal reinforcement ([A.sub.sl]), the distributed area of one leg of the transversal reinforcement ([A.sub.st] / s, where s is the spacing of transversal reinforcement), the average concrete
compressive strength ([f'.sub.c]) and the average yielding stress of longitudinal and transversal reinforcement ([f.sub.ly] and [f.sub.ty]).
3 shows a conventional curve of the increase of carbonation depth derived theoretically from the Fick's law on the one hand and from the one-year practical measurement in an environment of 0.03% C[O.sub.2] on the other hand, and simultaneously a growth curve for average concrete
(30 MPa in compression) determined by measurement in an environment of 98% C[O.sub.2].
Since the average concrete
palace will cost around e1/4750,000 to build, and what with the price of the plot, there must be more million-euro properties in Cyprus than on the C?te d'Azur...surely?