conditioning

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Related to aversive conditioning: operant conditioning, Avoidance learning

conditioning:

see learninglearning,
in psychology, the process by which a relatively lasting change in potential behavior occurs as a result of practice or experience. Learning is distinguished from behavioral changes arising from such processes as maturation and illness, but does apply to motor skills,
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conditioning

a term used in LEARNING THEORY or BEHAVIOURISM meaning the process of training or changing behaviour by association and reinforcement. There are two basic types of conditioning – classical and operant.

Classical conditioning was defined by I. Pavlov (1911) in his research on the salivary reflex in dogs. He observed that if a neutral stimulus (NS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) so that they become ‘associated’, then the NS develops the same ability to evoke a response as the UCS. Thus the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the response becomes a conditioned response (CR). This type of conditioning occurs only in involuntary behaviours such as salivation, sweating, heart rate and other behaviours controlled by the autonomic nervous system, and such a conditioned response may therefore be known as a CONDITIONED REFLEX. Reinforcement is delivered regardless of response, as it precedes it and is typically also the UCS (food in the case of Pavlovs experiment).

Operant or instrumental conditioning was defined and extensively researched by B.F. Skinner (1953). It involves training voluntary responses as the reinforcement is only delivered after the response and is contingent upon the response. Learning or conditioning involves the development of an association or bond between a stimulus and a response by reinforcing responses when they occur. Because reinforcement follows response, respondent behaviour can be manipulated by varying when the reinforcement is given (schedules of reinforcement). Learning is more resistant to extinction if the schedule of reinforcement used in training is related to the responses and is unpredictable. An example of this is gambling on a fruit machine. Extinction is the fading and disappearance of behaviour through non-reinforcement, e.g. socially unacceptable behaviour should be disregarded and not reinforced. Behaviour can be shaped towards a desirable end by the reinforcement of successive approximations to this. In this way, animals can be taught to do ‘tricks’ which would not be found in their normal repertoire of behaviour. Shaping principles underlie much of the control we exert over each other behaviour, especially childrens.

Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000

conditioning

[kən′dish·ən·iŋ]
(electronics)
Equipment modifications or adjustments necessary to match transmission levels and impedances or to provide equalization between facilities.
(graphic arts)
Restoration of microfilm for use after it has been stored for a period of time.
(science and technology)
Subjecting a material or organism to a stipulated treatment or stimulus so that it will respond in a uniform and desired manner to subsequent testing or processing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

conditioning

Extra cost options in a private telephone line that improve performance by reducing distortion and amplifying weak signals.
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References in periodicals archive ?
If verbal contingencies can control sexual arousal patterns, even in limited contexts, we should expect to find that aversive conditioning techniques used to counter-condition deviant sexual arousal may leave the verbal contingencies governing arousal in tact.
Coyote predation control by aversive conditioning. Science 184:581-583.
Properly trained, Karelians can be important aversive conditioning tools, helping, for example, to convince panhandling bruins to return to the woods.
Ralphs has tried a novel strategy known as aversive conditioning. He fed the cows small amounts of fresh larkspur and then dosed them - through a stomach pump - with lithium chloride, a chemical that nauseates them.
In other cultures, what we call torture is to them nothing more than "behavior modification' or the treatment of mental illness by aversive conditioning. In short, cultures differ widely in the value they place on human life and the compassion they accord victims of torture.
Aversive Conditioning. The study of aversive conditioning in nonhuman animals has a long history of employing mild electric shocks as US and tones or lights as typical CS + stimuli.
In the favorable schedule condition, there was no comparable aversive conditioning. Yet, the withdrawal rate at the end of the semester increased by virtually the same amount (.25) as it did in the unfavorable schedule condition (.28).
In this edition, there is some reorganization, and there are separate chapters on the principles and theories and applications of Pavlovian, appetitive, and aversive conditioning.
If a coyote near your home shows little fear of you, I recommend that you take measures to provide "aversive conditioning," including yelling or throwing sticks or stones towards the coyote.
Lovibond (2003) demonstrated that an ambiguous stimulus can be reappraised as being dangerous in a human aversive conditioning paradigm.