The axial ratio
of the benign LNs was 0.25 to 1.0 (mean, 0.57[+ or -]0.17).
Now the axial ratio
of the total transmitted wave can be calculated using the following formula
This high-gain and wideband CP LHM antenna gain and axial ratio
(AR) at different values of d are presented in Figures 5(a) and 5(b).
Focus on the shape change by studying the variations of axial length and axial ratio
, which are shown in Figures 6 and 7, respectively.
The antennas proposed in this study have two different versions, where the first one possesses better omnidirectionality and axial ratio
performances but narrow frequency bandwidth, and the second one has wider bandwidth but lower omnidirectional and axial ratio
The simulation CP axial ratio
and return loss parameters of the proposed antenna are displayed in Figure 2.
The simulated return loss and axial ratio
are shown in Figure 5 for different values of the length of the cross-shaped slot a.
The design corner case is mainly due to the fact that the gain and axial ratio
within +- 60 deg both must present the excellent directional achievement in a certain range of antenna.
10 shows the effects of [l.sub.1] and d on axial ratio
at the upper band of the proposed Antenna-1.
Figure 21 shows the simulated and measure axial ratios
for the circular polarization operations.
In fact, abandoning the constraint on the inhibition of surface waves , the proposed antenna can easily obtain with the characteristics of a 3 dB axial ratio
at lower elevation and a radiation pattern roll-off from zenith to horizon higher than 10 dB.
With a highly flattened disk yielding an axial ratio
of more than 18:1, UGC 7321 is the prototype superthin galaxy.