Neuropathy

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Related to axonal neuropathy: axonal polyneuropathy

neuropathy

[nu̇′räp·ə·thē]
(medicine)
Any disease affecting neurons.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Neuropathy

 

a functional weakness of the nervous system accompanied by a decrease in the absolute threshold (also called the stimulus, or sensitivity, threshold); the condition is frequently congenital.

Neuropathy arises as a disturbance in the function of the autonomic nervous system owing to deleterious influences on the fetus as a whole (for example, infection in the pregnant mother, trauma, or poisoning) or on the individual embryonic cells (as occurs when the parents suffer from alcoholism). Family circumstances, upbringing, and illnesses suffered by the infant play a role in the pathogenesis of neuropathy. The symptoms usually emerge in childhood or adolescence. When neuropathy occurs in early childhood, disturbances of sleep and appetite are most characteristic; the infant has difficulty in falling asleep, awakes easily, suckles poorly, and frequently spits up. Later, vomiting occurs, and either diarrhea or constipation develop.

From the preschool years on, increased general excitability and the rapid onset of fatigue and exhaustion are observed, in addition to continued disturbances of sleep and appetite. Children who suffer from neuropathy blush easily in response to irritation. Motor hyperactivity, nervous tics, and stammering are frequent. In adolescence, autonomic-vascular instability becomes more acute, as evidenced by frequently occurring nervous palpitation, abrupt shifts in blood pressure, headaches, dizzy spells, and fainting spells. The prognosis is favorable, with the neuropathic symptoms usually disappearing with age.

REFERENCES

Simson, T. Nevropatii, psikhopatii i reaktivnye sostoianiia mladencheskogo vozrasta. Moscow-Leningrad, 1929.
Sukhareva, G. E. Klinicheskie lektsii po psikhiatrii detskogo vozrasta, vol. 2. Moscow, 1959.

L. M. SHMAONOVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Giant axonal neuropathy caused by mutations in GAN gene should be taken into consideration for patients with early-onset, progressive sensorimotor axonal neuropathy, and central nervous system abnormality.
Giant axonal neuropathy is a rare, fatal neurodegenerative disorder that often manifests on imaging as a nonspecific leukodystrophy.
Ho et al., "Acute motor axonal neuropathy: an antibody-mediated attack on axolemma," Annals of Neurology, vol.
Hirata, "Acute motor axonal neuropathy and acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy share a common immunological profile," Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol.
Beckers et al., "Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) in a 15-year-old boy presenting with severe pain and distal muscle weakness," Neuropediatrics, vol.
The diagnosis of GARS-associated axonal neuropathy is made based on phenotypical presentation, electromyography (EMG), and genetic testing.
Landais, "Rare neurologic complication of bariatric surgery: acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), a severe motor axonal form of the Guillain Barre syndrome," Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, vol.
The neurological findings of this disease include movement disorders such as chorea, dystonia, orofacial dyskinesia, tic, ataxia, cognitive inefficiency, personality changes, axonal neuropathy, and epilepsy (1).
[6] Similar results were obtained by McKhann GM et al and Griffin JW et al, [7] the variants were found to affect the recovery and mortality of the patients with poor outcome and mortality observed in axonal variants compared to demyelinating variants in our study group with the maximum death in the acute motor axonal neuropathy.
Young, "Report of a novel mutation in the PMP22 gene causing an axonal neuropathy," Muscle and Nerve, vol.
When described, this association is more commonly related to acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) [2].
Sensory and/or motor axonal neuropathy was the most common pattern seen in 11 (84.6%) out of 13 patients who underwent nerve conduction studies prior to treatment initiation, one patient had demyelinating pattern and in another patient the studies were inconclusive.