The measured and simulated radiation patterns in both elevation and azimuth plane
, that is, the E-plane and H-plane, for the phased antenna array pointing toward the boresight direction are shown in Figure 15.
This antenna provides gain variation of about 0.7 dBi and axial ratio lower than 1 dB in the azimuth plane
at the center frequency.
4: shows the simulated Azimuth Plane
Pattern of proposed multiband antenna.
Hence, the influence assessment of the approach direction in the azimuth plane
on the final error of the VTOL positioning is made on the basis of simulation research.
Both the azimuth plane
cut and elevation plane cut of the pattern look quite monopole-like.
Next, the simulated realized gain patterns in the azimuth plane
are obtained from 1.2 GHz and 1.3 GHz, as shown in Figure 6.
Therefore, the radiation pattern of the antenna (for the differential mode) is expected to exhibit a null in the azimuth plane
. Figure 2 shows the input voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of the proposed UWB antenna with geometrical parameters listed in Table 1.
The measured results show generally good omni directional radiation in the azimuth plane
(the x-y plane) especially in the lower bands that is the 2.4/3.5 GHz bands and bidirectional radiation in the elevation plane (the x-z plane), which show a monopole-like radiation characteristics.
As most MIMO devices are intended to operate in all orientations and not just an azimuth plane
, this environment is very helpful in understanding real-world performance.
L-, S- and C-band antennas are available with omni-directional coverage in the azimuth plane
. They are optimized for gain near the horizon.
3(b) shows the simulated RHCP radiation pattern and the cross-polarization (LHCP) for two orthogonal planes, the azimuth plane
and the elevation plane.
Three-stage of 2-way dividers have been grouped to shape an 8-way power divider over SIW, as Figure 4 shows, to feed the array for the azimuth plane
. The first and second stages consist of conventional T-junctions with an inductive via as matching post within the corner structure .