backscatter


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backscatter

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Backscatter allows communication within the skip zone. Normally, station within skip zone cannot hear transmitting station. In this case Y cannot hear station X. Station, however, Z can hear station X by normal ionospheric propagation. On the other hand, when backscatter is strong enough station Y can hear station X, even though Y is within the skip zone.
i. A form of ionospheric propagation of electromagnetic waves via the E and F layers. These layers are highly ionized and have properties of reflecting electromagnetic waves back to the earth. Normally, almost all electromagnetic signals are returned to the earth at roughly equivalent angles of incidence. However, some amount of electromagnetic energy is scattered in all directions. Some energy may be reflected back toward the transmitting station into the skip zone. A receiving station within this skip zone is thus able to receive the transmission. Also called echo.
ii. In radar, the portion of the microwave energy scattered by the terrain surface directly back toward the antenna.
References in periodicals archive ?
For bare agricultural soils, the backscattered radar signals depend strongly on the geometric characteristics (roughness) and dielectric properties (moisture content and soil composition) of the soil (Singh 2007; Tiwari 2014; Gharechelou 2015).
Barros, "Parameterization of vegetation backscatter in radar-based, soil moisture estimation," Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.
Substituting (1) into (2), the following expressions [33] are obtained for the linear volume depolarization ratio [[delta].sub.v] and for the range-corrected total backscatter signal U:
The backscatter wireless communication is the modulation method for ultra-low-power.
The calibration results show that the relative acoustic backscatter values of ADCP were positively correlated to the laboratory-analyzed suspended sediment concentration.
Comparison of Corneal Backscatter between FECD Eyes with/without Corneal Edema.
Vertical distribution Simrad ES60 echosounders were used in both survey vessels (Kongsberg Maritime AS, Kongsberg, Norway) and operated at frequencies of 38 and 120 kHz with a sampling rate of 1-2 pings/s to collect acoustic backscatter data.
Like other cloud lidars, the Optical Ice Detector directly measures the optical extinction and backscatter of the cloud that it probes.
Under saturated conditions carriers that pass in the drain terminal of the channel cannot backscatter to the source.
The team behind 'Wi-Fi' backscatter plans to set up a start up company on the technology.
The MINI Z builds off the company's Z Backscatter Van, a cargo and vehicle screening system.