backscatter

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backscatter

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Backscatter allows communication within the skip zone. Normally, station within skip zone cannot hear transmitting station. In this case Y cannot hear station X. Station, however, Z can hear station X by normal ionospheric propagation. On the other hand, when backscatter is strong enough station Y can hear station X, even though Y is within the skip zone.
i. A form of ionospheric propagation of electromagnetic waves via the E and F layers. These layers are highly ionized and have properties of reflecting electromagnetic waves back to the earth. Normally, almost all electromagnetic signals are returned to the earth at roughly equivalent angles of incidence. However, some amount of electromagnetic energy is scattered in all directions. Some energy may be reflected back toward the transmitting station into the skip zone. A receiving station within this skip zone is thus able to receive the transmission. Also called echo.
ii. In radar, the portion of the microwave energy scattered by the terrain surface directly back toward the antenna.
References in periodicals archive ?
At high frequencies such as 10 GHz, the wave is backscattered mostly by the scatterers in the snow layer itself where the contribution of volume backscattering in the sea ice layer is relatively small.
The interface between DVA compounds, containing different EPDM concentrations, was located with the SEM using a sensitive backscattered electron detector.
A new method of measuring the electron-antineutrino angular correlation coefficient, little "a", from neutron decay--to be performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology--will require an electron spectrometer that strongly suppresses backscattered electrons.
5 % measurement of little "a" will require rejection efficiency greater than 80 % for the backscattered electrons.
Care was taken to reduce or correct for both the additional contribution of absorbed current from reabsorbed secondary electrons produced by backscattered electrons striking the sample chamber walls and the loss of secondary electrons from the target area.