backscatter

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backscatter

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Backscatter allows communication within the skip zone. Normally, station within skip zone cannot hear transmitting station. In this case Y cannot hear station X. Station, however, Z can hear station X by normal ionospheric propagation. On the other hand, when backscatter is strong enough station Y can hear station X, even though Y is within the skip zone.
i. A form of ionospheric propagation of electromagnetic waves via the E and F layers. These layers are highly ionized and have properties of reflecting electromagnetic waves back to the earth. Normally, almost all electromagnetic signals are returned to the earth at roughly equivalent angles of incidence. However, some amount of electromagnetic energy is scattered in all directions. Some energy may be reflected back toward the transmitting station into the skip zone. A receiving station within this skip zone is thus able to receive the transmission. Also called echo.
ii. In radar, the portion of the microwave energy scattered by the terrain surface directly back toward the antenna.
References in periodicals archive ?
It means that the ceilometer signal is too noisy and is only capable to measure the signal backscattered from particles in a low range.
All the above results show that the proposed method in this paper is robust enough regarding the characterization of a 3D rough fractal surface from backscattered radar data.
Kuklev, "Amplitude calibration of an acoustic backscattered signal from a bottom-moored ADCP based on long-term measurement series," Oceanology, vol.
In our research, the lower values of our AIB parameter, when compared with the literature (20), can perhaps be explained by the effects of cortical bone, which increases the loss of ultrasonic energy by reflection; therefore, less energy was transmitted to the inside of the bone, and, hence, the energy backscattered from this region was decreased.
Therefore both the particle backscatter and extinction coefficients profiles, at 355 and 532 nm, were obtained by applying the so-called Raman method [44], which is based on the independent measurements at the laser wavelength as well as at the wavelength of the inelastically backscattered light.
The backscattered field computed by FE-BI-MLFMA is denoted as [E.sup.s]([thea],[phi],f).
Compact or hybrid polarimetric SAR has been evolved as a substitute for full-polarimetric SAR in recent times as it offers a reduced complexity, cost, mass and data transmission rate of the SAR system while retaining full-polarimetric information of the target in the backscattered field.
The method involved treating 90 [micro]m thick plywood sections, which had been cut transversely through the wood-coaling interface using a sliding microtome, with osmium tetroxide (Os[O.sub.4]) prior to examination with a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) operating in backscattered electron imaging (BEI) mode.
The instruments enable simultaneous observation of up to three different images (secondary electron, backscattered electron, and digital camera), on-screen measurement, and smart settings for simplified functionality.
Hofstatter and his associates assessed bone mineral density (BMD) distribution using quantitative backscattered electron imaging, and bone biopsies were collected from nine premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis.
From a typical 1,000-foot altitude, the sensor captures the backscattered solar radiation and measures the total ethane volume in the column from the aircraft to the ground.