where [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] reveal the operation time of the backup relay for the near-end and far-end faults, respectively CTI is the minimum coordination time interval between backup and primary relay; the aim of the time interval is to ensure that circuit breakers clear the fault as directed.
P/B relay pairs Near-end fault current (A) Primary Backup Primary relay Backup relay relay no.
The coordination constraints between the primary and the backup relays are as follows:
main relay protection, HV backup relay
protection, together HV backup and MV relay protection and ancillary protection and functions (e.g.
This structure will be implemented by a function on the MatLab software environment, and it will be invoked every time any transmission line suffers any change of state in its own or the backup relays
. It is worth mentioning that both for the buses as for the transformers the same implementation procedure described above is used.