backward chaining


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backward chaining

[¦bak·wərd ′chān·iŋ]
(computer science)
In artificial intelligence, a method of reasoning which starts with the problem to be solved and repeatedly breaks this goal into subgoals that are more readily solvable with the relevant data and the system's rules of inference.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

backward chaining

(algorithm)
An algorithm for proving a goal by recursively breaking it down into sub-goals and trying to prove these until facts are reached. Facts are goals with no sub-goals which are therefore always true. Backward training is the program execution mechanism used by most logic programming language like Prolog.

Opposite: forward chaining.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)

backward chaining

In AI, a form of reasoning that starts with the conclusion and works backward. The goal is broken into many subgoals or sub-subgoals which can be solved more easily. Known as top-down approach. Contrast with forward chaining.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Enterra's software conducts both forward chaining (given the data, what might the potential outcomes be?) and backward chaining (given a certain outcome, what possible paths through the data would explain it?) to allow an understanding of the data.
The Track & Trace system identifies the supply chain path taken by a product in the unfortunate event of a product recall and can reduce the risk in the supply chain by identifying backward chaining sources and forward chaining recipients of products in near real time.
There are two inference methods, namely forward chaining or data driven reasoning, as well as backward chaining or goal driven reasoning.
Evidences can be generated from attack scenario using forward and Backward chaining phases adopted from inferring scenarios with S-TLC [19].
Porsteinsson and Siguroardottir (2007) used backward chaining to teach a 55-year old woman with chronic aphasia to read compound Icelandic words.
Each problem-oriented ES run cycle consists of two phases (Giarratano & Riley, 1998): 1) first, question posing or final hypothesis determination (backward chaining algorithm), and 2) knowledge inference (forward chaining algorithm).
The nonlinear transformation involved in computing successive FCM states and the process of reversing the matrix multiplication make the backward chaining difficult.
Backward chaining is a goal-driven process that is used when we are trying to explain the causes of results.
Forward chaining involves learning the sequence of component steps gradually and in their natural order, whereas backward chaining involves learning the sequence of component steps gradually but in their reverse order.
The LIFE Program uses task analyses for all tasks that detail the type of instruction (total task presentation, backward chaining, forward chaining, clustering, time delay with whole task instruction, and experiential).
If you know the question you want answered then you use a method called backward chaining. In this you start at the goal you want to achieve and work backwards through subgoals in an effort to choose an answer.
Backward Chaining. Generally accepted to be the more efficient method of reasoning, backward-chaining can be thought of as working up a decision tree.