The measurement of smallest particles down into the nano range is performed by the green laser light for backward scattering
. Specially arranged detectors ensure this.
It ranges from +1 for complete forward scattering to -1 for complete backward scattering
. For a symmetric scattering, its value is zero.
Based on the distributions of the plasma frequency [f.sub.p] and the collision frequency [v.sub.c] obtained in the CFD, backward scattering
characteristics of a PEC sphere enveloped by a hypersonic flow field are investigated using the high-order ADE-FDTD method in this subsection.
Bong and Wong studied the impact of anisotropy scattering using the MC method and suggested that forward scattering has a more obvious effect on the thermal conductivity than backward scattering
Liu, "An improved backward SBR-PO/PTD hybrid method for the backward scattering
prediction of an electrically large target," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.
The measured results show that the metasurface can effectively decrease the backward scattering
within the whole X band under normal and oblique incidences when coating on a metallic plate, which may find potential applications in the stealth technology in the future.
If g = 0, we have isotropic scattering; g = 1 or -1 corresponds to fully forward or fully backward scattering
The scattering distributions (especially the backward scattering
distribution) of the products are critical for identifying the abstraction pathway.
* Diffuse reflectance that stems from backward scattering
The increase in the device performance via incorporating a layer of the rods in contact with the cell's back electrodes could be explained by the following mechanisms: the EM field associated with the LSPR of Au NRs (near-field effect) was intensified near the photoactive layer, or the optical path length of the incident light inside the photoactive layer was increased due to the backward scattering
(far-field effect) of the incident light [5,6,19].
Nomenclature a: SFM parameter, dimensionless b: SFM parameter, dimensionless [C.sub.m, cat]: Catalyst concentration, g[l.sup.-1] [F.sub.Obj]: Objective function, [mol.sup.2] [cm.sup.-6] H: Thickness, cm I: Emission spectrum of radiation source, Einstein [cm.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1] [I.sub.0]: Flux of radiation at surface, Einstein [cm.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1] LVRPA: Local volumetric rate of photon absorption, Einstein [cm.sup.-3] [s.sup.-1] [p.sub.b]: Probability of backward scattering
, dimensionless [p.sub.f]: Probability of forward scattering, dimensionless [p.sub.s]: Probability of side scattering, dimensionless [r.sub.p]: Auxiliary coordinate in the photon flux direction, cm x: Cartesian coordinate, cm y: Cartesian coordinate, cm z: Cartesian coordinate, cm.
The incident EM wave with the angle [[phi].sub.i] = 90[degrees] hence observing angle [[phi].sub.s] = 90[degrees] indicates the forward scattering, while [[phi].sub.s] = 270[degrees] indicates the backward scattering
. As can be seen from Figures 5(a) and (b), the forward scattering at point [[phi].sub.s] = 90[degrees] has only a little difference in spite of the different frequencies and separations, and the scattering width varies markedly with frequency and separation at the other scattered directions.