The first Gaussian function [f.sub.1](n) denotes the main wave, or the forward wave; the second Gaussian function [f.sub.2](n) denotes the tidal wave; and the third Gaussian function [f.sub.3](n) denotes the dicrotic wave, or the backward wave
. Each Gaussian function was defined as
where v is the forward speed, [omega] is the backward wave
speed, [[rho].sub.jam] is the jam density, and [q.sub.max] is the maximum flow.
This intrinsic vibration initializes the backward wave
propagation, but the spatial location of the vibration along the BM is still debated.
The first driver to respond to an event on the road brakes, the person behind, due to reaction time, brakes a fraction of a second later and has to brake a little harder to avoid hitting the person in front, the person behind them has to brake harder still, and somewhere down the backward wave
the traffic comes to a complete halt.
Qiao, "Backward wave
separation method in a single transmitter and multi-receiver sensor array for improved damage identification of two-dimensional structures," International Journal of Damage Mechanics, vol.
It is worth noting that for high values of C and for this condition [square root of [[mu].sub.r][[epsilon].sub.r]] < [absolute value of ([xi])], the chiral medium behaves as a metamaterial for which the first mode becomes evanescent and the second becomes a backward wave
The forward wave is described by (13) with a "plus" and the backward wave
with a "minus." Obviously, the angle between wave front propagation and the normal is
On the other hand, backward wave
seem to be more suppressed by input feed line.
The reflected backward wave
representation in the boundary layer can be written by noting that the backward wave
runs in the opposite direction and that there is no incident backward wave
Carlile examined both theoretically and experimentally the surface wave mode for the constant azimuthal variation (n = 1) and reported that this mode is a backward wave
The superposition of the forward and backward wave
localizes the SP by forming a standing wave pattern.