The funds will be used to conduct research into making food safer by eliminating harmful viruses and bacterial endospores
in juices and other beverages.
This can be Low-level (LLD) which kills vegetative bacteria, and some fungi and viruses or Intermediate level that kills vegetative bacteria, mycobacteria, viruses and most fungi, or high level (HLD) that kills all microorganisms except bacterial endospores
Scientists tested bacterial endospores
in the space experiment "molecular strategies of microbial adaptation to different space's and planetary climate conditions." It was determined that extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) emission of sun ([lambda] [greater than or equal to] 110 nm) and also Martian UV ([lambda] [greater than or equal to] 200 nm) are the most harmful factors.
All three, Survival of Rock-Colonizing Organisms After 1.5 Years in Outer Space, Resistance of Bacterial Endospores
to Outer Space for Planetary Protection Purposes and Survival of Bacillus pumilus Spores for a Prolonged Period of Time in Real Space Conditions, have appeared in Astrobiology Journal.
All three, "Survival of Rock-Colonizing Organisms After 1.5 Years in Outer Space," "Resistance of Bacterial Endospores
to Outer Space for Planetary Protection Purposes" and "Survival of Bacillus Pumilus Spores for a Prolonged Period of Time in Real Space Conditions," have appeared in Astrobiology Journal.
Susceptibility to chemical disinfectants and UV irradiation Microorganism Highly susceptible# Mycoplasmas# Susceptible Enveloped viruses Gram-positive bacteria Gram-negative bacteria Fungal spores Resistant Nonenveloped viruses Mycobacteria Highly resistant Bacterial endospores
Protozoal oocysts Protozoallike spores Extremely resistant Prions Highlighted in bold are characteristic and susceptibility of abalone herpes virus, an enveloped virus.
Bacillus illnesses are caused by bacterial endospores
that survive when food is not well-cooked.
In discussing bacterial endospores
as unique microbial structures, the example of Clostridium botulinum was used.
It effectively eliminates vegetative bacteria cells, enveloped viruses and fungi, but has a limited effect on Mycobacteria, non-enveloped viruses and bacterial endospores
. The disadvantages of iodine compounds are that they are inactivated by Quaternary Ammonium compounds (Quats), which could pose a problem when iodine and Quats are used in rotation.