The findings provided by the CPB-modified SP3 strain may shed light onto why this knockout approach has been unsuccessful and provide a new method for constructing live-attenuated bacterial vaccines
. Virulence gene knockout is a binary approach; the virulence factor is either present at wild type levels or completely removed.
Control treatments for each fungi were left without contamination with bacterial vaccine
or chemical fungicides .
Therefore, live viral vaccines (polio, MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), varicella) and live bacterial vaccines
(BCG) should not be administered unless the individual is in the remission stage.
pertussis named Bp1-11 (Pertussis Reference Laboratory, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran), Tohama I (ATCC [R] BAA-589 [TM] ) as reference strain, and 2 vaccine strains (Department of Aerobic Bacterial Vaccines
, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute) were studied.
BGs are a wonderful tool for preparing different kind of bacterial vaccines
Efficacy of whole-cell killed bacterial vaccines
in preventing pneumonia and death during the 1918 influenza pandemic.
Few bacterial vaccines
are made with live pathogens.
Researchers said a future influenza pandemic could unfold in a similar way, pointing to the need for pandemic preparations that include not only efforts to produce new or improved flu vaccines and antiviral drugs, but also stockpiles of antibiotics and bacterial vaccines
pandemic plan, there is little mention of bacterial vaccines
. I believe their role is significant and has not been considered up until now," he said at an international conference on community-acquired pneumonia.
Boosters are recommended for all the bacterial vaccines
every 5 years for asplenic patients.
Kaper, who developers bacterial vaccines
at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, asserts that the findings will lead to vaccines and new diagnostic techniques for harmful E.