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an epic and lyric epic genre of Tatar and Bashkir popular poetry. The term comes from the Arabic bayt (couplet). As a rule, the bait is composed of quatrains with an aaba or abcb rhyme scheme, and it may be as long as 100 quatrains. The genre arose in the 14th and 15th centuries. Prerevolutionary baits may be grouped in cycles according to their themes: military historical and soldiers’ baits and baits about forced labor, peasant uprisings, the hard lot of women, and so forth. There are also satirical and humorous baits.
The basis of the majority of baits is the impact of overwhelming circumstances on the protagonist. Therefore, the death of the hero and a monologue by him—a farewell to life and his family—are characteristic of the genre. A traditional beginning, common locations, and borrowings from sung poetry are encountered in the bait. Many baits have their own melodies, which make up a special part of popular music. Baits are still composed.
TEXTS AND REFERENCESKatanov, N. F. Istoricheskie pesni kazanskikh tatar. Kazan, 1899.
Bádig, Kh. Khalïk ädäbiyätï, top 1, bülek 3. Kazan, 1913.
Yärxmi, Kh. Bäetlar. Kazan, 1960.
Nadirov, I. Khalïk häm zhïr. Kazan, 1961.
I. N. NADIROV
in the protection of plants, any one of various substances to attract harmful rodents and insects with the aim of exterminating them. Baits include food traps and attractants.
The use of food traps is based on a knowledge of the nutritional requirements and the food-seeking and feeding habits of various pest species. The basis for the use of attractants lies in the study of the mechanisms for the release, dissemination, and sensing of special compounds by insects. Baits may be non-poisonous (for example, decoy crops), poisonous (with the addition of pesticides), or microbial (treated with pathogenic bacteria causing a typhoidlike disease in rodents). They may be wet, semidry, or dry. Ground plant leaves, hay, straw, grain, oil cakes, bran, and, sometimes, manure (against locust) are used as bait substrates. Liquid oils known as stickers (sunflower and cottonseed oils) are used to bind insoluble poisons onto baits.
The production of poisonous baits should not endanger humans. They should be produced outdoors at special sites located far from domestic animals. Baits for mole crickets and grasshoppers are distributed in fields. Baits for susliks, voles, and water rats are placed in fields and gardens in or near the rodent’s burrows. The best places to set baits for mice and rats are storehouses, dwellings, and barns. The average amount of bait for one burrow is 1-2 g. Approximately 0.5-5 g are required for 1 sq m of room or enclosed ground, and 30-40 kg is needed for a hectare.
REFERENCESPoliakov, I. Ia. Vrednye gryzuny i bor’ba s nimi, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1968.
Berim, N. G. Khimicheskaia zashchita rastenii, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1972.
B. IU. FAL’KENSHTEIN
What does it mean when you dream about bait?
As a lure, bait is usually associated with fishing, although in a dream fishing can symbolize anything from fishing for a deal to fishing for a compliment.