Julie Webster, Cassini's spacecraft operations chief at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, said in the report that "to keep the antenna pointed at Earth, we used what's called 'bang-bang control
.'" This was the name given to the thrusters' actions that kept the spacecraft aligned with Earth.
They mainly derived some structures of the optimal policy, such as the bang-bang control policy and 3-element set policy for some special cases, while, in this paper, we study the structure of the optimal control policy for the case with general cost and service rate functions Moreover, some uninvestigated properties of the optimal policy are obtained in this paper.
Actually it is not obvious whether the bang-bang control is also optimal, when the service resource cost and service rate functions are more general than linear in service resource.
 Lucas, S.K.; Kaya, C.Y., "Switching-time computation for bang-bang control
laws," American Control Conference, 2001.
The bang-bang control, which minimizes a performance index subjected to the control force constraint, has been widely investigated by several authors.
Soong, "Modified bang-bang control law for structural control implementation," Journal of Engineering Mechanics, vol.
3.1 Damping the motion oscillations (bang-bang control
Applications to regular and bang-bang control
; second-order necessary and sufficient optimality conditions in calculus of variations and optimal control.
law for single-input time-invariant plant, Control Theory and Applications, IEEE, Vol.
Hysteretic control, also known as bang-bang control
or ripple regulator control, maintains the converter output voltage within the hysteretic band centered about the reference voltage.
The third method of control is hysteretic mode control, also called bang-bang control
. It is the only control topology that does not employ an error amplifier, but it uses a comparator instead.
The first part of the paper is devoted to the open loop control of the actuator and to smooth the positioning of the actuator in open loop method namely Bang-Bang control
. The proposed architecture of the control strategy presented in the second part is a simple and optimized architecture based on the use of conventional PID controllers and SMC.