Banishment

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exile

, in politics and government
exile, removal of a national from his or her country, or the civilized parts of it, for a long period of time or for life. Exile may be a forceful expulsion by the government or a voluntary removal by the citizen, sometimes in order to escape punishment. In ancient Greece, exile was often the penalty for homicide, while ostracism was a common punishment for those accused of political crimes. In early Rome a citizen under sentence of death had a choice between exile and death. In this case, exile was a means of escaping a greater punishment. During the Roman Empire, deportation to certain islands became a general punishment for serious crimes. The ancient Hebrews allowed those who committed homicide to take refuge in designated cities of sanctuary. Until 1776, certain types of English criminals were transported to the American colonies, and later, until 1853, they were sent to penal settlements in Australia. Both the Russian czarist and Communist regimes have transported prisoners to Siberia. With the growth of nation-states and the acceptance of the doctrine that ties between state and citizen are indissoluble, exile for criminal reasons has become infrequent. However, modern civil wars and revolutions have produced many political exiles, including large numbers of refugees who have been victims of the upheavals in some manner. Such exiles are not subject to extradition and may demand protection from the country receiving them. The concept of “government in exile”—one person or a group of persons living outside their state and claiming to be the rightful government—has become accepted in international law during the 20th cent. This situation usually arises when a warring state is occupied by the enemy and its government is forced to seek asylum in another state. The government is recognized as lawful if it attempts to regain control and if it has armed forces integrated in a large alliance. During World War II, the monarchs and governments of Norway, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium (without the king), and Yugoslavia were exiled in London, while the governments of Charles de Gaulle of France and Eduard Beneš of Czechoslovakia were formed in exile. See deportation; refugee.
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Banishment

Acadians
America’s lost tribe; suffered expulsion under British. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 2; Am. Lit.: “Evangeline” in Hart, 263]
Adam and Eve
banished from the Garden of Eden for eating forbidden fruit. [O.T.: Genesis 3:23–24]
anemone
ordered from Flora’s court. [Gk. Myth.: Flora Symbolica, 172]
Bolingbroke, Henry
banished, along with Mowbray, by King Richard. [Br. Lit.: Shakespeare Richard II]
Cain
cast out from homeland for murdering Abel. [O.T.: Genesis 4:12]
Devil’s Island
former French penal colony off French Guiana. [Fr. Hist.: NCE, 754]
Elba
site of Napoleon’s first exile (1814). [Fr. Hist.: NCE, 854]
fire and water
Roman symbol of exile. [Rom. Hist.: Brewer Note-Book, 451]
Hagar and Ishmael
Sarah orders Abraham to drive them out. [O.T.: Genesis 21:9–13]
Ivanhoe
disinherited by father, Cedric the Saxon. [Br. Lit.: Ivanhoe]
Jenik
banished by jealous stepmother. [Czech. Opera: Smetana, Bartered Bride, Westerman, 404]
Nolan, Philip
treasonous man sentenced to live remainder of life at sea. [Am. Lit.: Man Without a Country]
Oedipus
exiles himself for killing father and marrying mother. [Gk. Lit.: Oedipus Rex]
Patmos
island of exile for St. John. [N.T.: Revelation 1:9]
Posthumus
marries Cymbeline’s daughter; Cymbeline banishes him. [Br. Lit.: Cymbeline]
Pride’s Purge
Cromwell’s ejection of royalist MPs (1648). [Br. Hist.: Brewer Handbook, 871]
Rosalind
her sylvan exile sets scene for comedy. [Br. Lit.: As You Like It]
Saint Helena
place of Napoleon’s second exile (1815). [Fr. Hist.: NCE, 2397]
Siberia
place of banishment and exile. [Geography. NCE, 2509–2510]
Trail of Tears
forced march of 18,000 Cherokees westward to Indian Territory (Oklahoma); 4,000 die of disease and exposure (winter, 1838–1839). [Am. Hist.: EB, 2: 808]
Tristram
expelled from Cornwall by King Mark for ten years. [Br. Lit.: Le Morte d’Arthur]
Untouchables
lowest caste in India; social outcasts. [Ind. Culture: Brewer Dictionary, 1118]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Traditionally, banishment was intended to serve a rehabilitative purpose, with the banished person returning to and reintegrating with the community at the end of the banishment period.
BANISHMENT AND TRIBAL JURISDICTION OVER NON-NATIVES
(97) Quasi-criminal cases are civil cases that result in punitive sanctions--a sanction that is "so 'divorced' from any remedial or compensatory goal that [it] constitute[s] punishment that invokes constitutional limits not implicated in ordinary civil process." (98) Quasi-criminal cases are defined by their associated "significant loss of liberty, often coupled with stigmatic harm"--such as with their use to prevent sex offenders from residing in certain areas." This classification applies to tribal banishment of non-Native Alaskans and indicates that such banishment is likely quasi-criminal and not exclusively a civil matter.
These cases must be brought as quasi-criminal cases when banishment is a punishment option because tribal courts cannot exercise criminal jurisdiction over non-members and banishment is more severe than traditional civil penalties.
This Note is focused on banishment of non-Natives and will not include an expansive discussion of tribal jurisdiction over members.
(148) Expressing concern about due process issues does not negate the validity of tribal court jurisdiction or banishment as a whole; it simply indicates standards that must be met within the existing system.
But Europe imposes these banishments as an extraordinary
Whatever happened to banishment? It is one of the fundamental forms
shows banishment to be among the most basic instruments with which the
rehabilitation, at least in a reintegrative sense: banishment is for
or deterrence: banishment does indeed take something of value from
banishment's meaning outruns retribution, deterrence,