(10.) Butzer and Freeman write that under normal conditions the Nile inundation reaches bankfull stage
in the southern Nile by mid-August and in the northern Nile (where the Israelites lived) 4-6 weeks later, which puts its highest level around the beginning of October.
When the water level is even with the banks, the river is at bankfull stage
. And when the water level exceeds the banks or overflows, the river is at a flood stage.
As before, earlier and later measurements of the cross-section and the upstream and downstream cross-sectional profiles were used for reference to determine the bankfull stage
The particle sized based estimate of Manning's roughness value (n = 0.023) at bankfull stage
was consistent with a roughness value derived from measured flow velocities at bankfull stage
(n = 0.022).
corresponds to the discharge at which overbank flow is incipient.
Participants will learn about stream processes related to channel formation, field assessment, techniques to identify bankfull stage
, the Rosgen classification system for natural streams, channel evolution, and restoration options for impaired streams.