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the stage of development typified by pastoralism identified in early theories of social evolution (see EVOLUTIONARY THEORY). MONTESQUIEU was the first to use the term in this way, arguing that the three main stages in social development were:
  1. hunting or SAVAGERY;
  2. herding or barbarism; and
  3. CIVILIZATION. Later 19th-century evolutionary thinkers, such as E. B. TYLOR and L. H. MORGAN, also adopted the concept.



in the periodization proposed in the 1760’s by the Scottish philosopher A. Ferguson, which became established in European science during the 18th and 19th centuries, the second of the three epochs in the history of mankind: savagery, barbarism, and civilization. Serious substantiation was provided for this scheme by L. H. Morgan, according to whom barbarism begins with the invention of pottery and concludes with the appearance of a written language (Ancient Society, 1877; Russian translation, 2nd ed., 1935). Morgan’s periodization was adopted by F. Engels, who noted, however, that it was conventional (“Proiskhozhdenie sem’i, chastnoi sobstvennosti i gosudarstva,” in K. Marx and F. Engels., Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 21, p. 28). Most contemporary researchers do not use Morgan’s scheme, which is to a considerable degree obsolete: a new periodization of primitive history has been developed in contemporary science.


Tolstov, S. P. “K voprosu o periodizatsii istorii pervobytnogo obshchestva.” Sovetskaia etnografiia, 1946, no. 1.
Pershits, A. I., A. L. Mongait, and V. P. Alekseev. Istoriia pervobytnogo obshchestva. Moscow, 1968.
Problemy istorii dokapitalisticheskikh obshchestv, book 1. Moscow, 1968.
References in periodicals archive ?
And it will take not only a change of government, but a change of the system and culture-embedded by decades of poverty, misery and abuse-to reverse the barbarism of today.
What matters right now is the realisation that for the committee of five who penned the Declaration, and for the members of the Continental Congress who revised it and voted unanimously for it, Trump's "you have to take out their families" counted as barbarism.
fight in crowded and then barbarism Israel them I care enormously that Palestinians secure themselves a homeland cheek-byjowl with Israel, but Hamas' leadership is luring its followers into less a patriotic war, more a mass suicide of those it purports to defend.
Francis praised "the numerous soldiers who left their country to land on the beaches of Normandy to fight against Nazi barbarism and free occupied France.
Yes the victim was a Jihadist, but that does not mean that we as a nation of heroic fighters of the First and Second World War have to drop down to their level of barbarism.
The theme of barbarism refers to the violence inherent to this process of abstraction and the sense of self it engenders.
Michel Henry, Barbarism, Scott Davidson (introduction and translation), London, Continuum, 2012, 168pp
The chairman of the Iranian Judiciary says the US Constitution is nothing but a collection of "the laws of barbarism.
With such contradictions, the (US) Constitution is the law of barbarism," he added.
History shows that you have to commit a small barbarism to prevent a bigger barbarism," the 33-year-old Norwegian said.
Taliban members and their ilk, who seek to inflict massive and deadly harm upon innocent Westerners out of a twisted ideology of hate, know barbarism and embrace it.
MARK HELPRIN'S DIGITAL BARBARISM IS ostensibly a book about copyright: the need for preserving it and indeed extending its span, the distinctions between it and other forms and kinds of property, the political implications behind recent attempts to eliminate it.