barbarism


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barbarism

the stage of development typified by pastoralism identified in early theories of social evolution (see EVOLUTIONARY THEORY). MONTESQUIEU was the first to use the term in this way, arguing that the three main stages in social development were:
  1. hunting or SAVAGERY;
  2. herding or barbarism; and
  3. CIVILIZATION. Later 19th-century evolutionary thinkers, such as E. B. TYLOR and L. H. MORGAN, also adopted the concept.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Barbarism

 

in the periodization proposed in the 1760’s by the Scottish philosopher A. Ferguson, which became established in European science during the 18th and 19th centuries, the second of the three epochs in the history of mankind: savagery, barbarism, and civilization. Serious substantiation was provided for this scheme by L. H. Morgan, according to whom barbarism begins with the invention of pottery and concludes with the appearance of a written language (Ancient Society, 1877; Russian translation, 2nd ed., 1935). Morgan’s periodization was adopted by F. Engels, who noted, however, that it was conventional (“Proiskhozhdenie sem’i, chastnoi sobstvennosti i gosudarstva,” in K. Marx and F. Engels., Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 21, p. 28). Most contemporary researchers do not use Morgan’s scheme, which is to a considerable degree obsolete: a new periodization of primitive history has been developed in contemporary science.

REFERENCES

Tolstov, S. P. “K voprosu o periodizatsii istorii pervobytnogo obshchestva.” Sovetskaia etnografiia, 1946, no. 1.
Pershits, A. I., A. L. Mongait, and V. P. Alekseev. Istoriia pervobytnogo obshchestva. Moscow, 1968.
Problemy istorii dokapitalisticheskikh obshchestv, book 1. Moscow, 1968.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
He said that Pakistani nation will continue to support Kashmiri people against Indian barbarism and illegal occupancy in Kashmir valley.
BNM protest in front of Pakistani and Chinese embassies in South Korean capital Seoul against Pakistani barbarism and exploitive #CPEC projects in Balochistan," they further tweeted.
She said that India unleashed its state barbarism for over 70 years during which thousands of Kashmiris were martyred and thousands of women were widows but the intensity of the movement has witnessed a considerable increase with each passing day, which is clear indication that Kashmiris could not be scared by such inhuman acts.
Criticizing the world community, she said that it is really unfortunate that the world community, United Nation and Human Rights Organizations observed criminal silence over Indian state barbarism in the Indian Occupied Kashmir and have no courage to force the Indian government to sop the on-going genocide of innocent Kashmiris.
She examines a selection of Christian apologetic texts from the second, third, and early fourth centuries, dividing them into Greek and Roman texts, not only because the two languages treat the notion of barbarism differently, but also to illustrate the eastern and western apologetic traditions that were emerging.
It may be recalled that, the Senate of Pakistan and National Assembly had already passed unanimously resolutions, strongly condemning the recent barbarism by the Indian security forces in Occupied Kashmir that claimed lives of a number of innocent Kashmiris in Pulwama.
"After Poroshenko said that Russia is allegedly planning to seize Mariupol and Berdyansk, I can say, putting his own pronouncements in other words, that it is Russia that protects Europe from barbarism, tyranny, terrorism, aggression and militarism looming large over our continent," she wrote on her Facebook account, TASS reported.
On Saturday, General Rawat said,"we need to take stern action to avenge the barbarism that terrorists and Pakistan Army have been carrying out." "Yes, it's time to give it back to them in the same coin, not resorting to similar kind of barbarism.
andPakistan Army warns peace initiative shouldn't be taken as weakness NEW DELHI/RAWALPINDI: Indian Army chief General Bipin Rawat on Saturday said that "it is time" that the barbarism being propagated by the Pakistan army and the terrorists in Jammu and Kashmir is given a befitting reply, reported Indian media.
Besides, their love for humanity is evident from the fact that they never react against Israeli barbarism.
Female infanticide was a well-known custom in the pre-Islamic era, also known as the age of barbarism. With the advent of the seventh century, however, things began to change and the practice became increasingly rare.
LAHORE:President PML-N and Chief Minister Punjab Muhammad Shehbaz Sharif strongly condemned terrorism and naked barbarism of Indian armed forces in Occupied Kashmir.