where [e.sub.*] is the massless

bare charge that is related to the electronic charge via e = [[alpha].sup.1/2][e.sub.*], and [alpha] and [m.sub.*] are the fine structure constant and the Planck particle mass.

Fragmentation is a known source of unexploded material; however, for a bare, or effectively

bare charge, experience shows that there is still explosives residue that can be collected.

where p (= [m.sub.e][gamma][upsilon]) and E (= [m.sub.e][gamma][c.sup.2]) are the relativistic momentum and energy of the electron, and [e.sub.*] is the massless

bare charge. The radii [r.sub.d] (= [r.sub.e]/[beta][gamma]) and [r.sub.L] (= [r.sub.e]/[gamma]) are the electron de Broglie radii in the space and time directions on the Minkowski space-time diagram, where [beta] = [upsilon]/c < 1 and [gamma] = 1/[square root of (1 - [[beta].sup.2])].

But there is a problem: while the theory suggests a source for the negative

bare charge (-[e.sub.*]) of the electron (the current PV state itself), it is mute when it comes to the positive

bare charge ([e.sub.*]) of the proton.

The Planck vacuum (PV) is an omnipresent degenerate continuum of negatively charged Planck particles, each of which is represented by (-[e.sub.*], [m.sub.*]), where [e.sub.*] is the massless

bare charge and [m.sub.*] is the Planck mass [1].

Theoretically, it is tempting to assume that this added negative charge is the massless

bare charge (-[e.sub.*]).

The mass of the proton is [m.sub.p] [3] and the

bare charge [e.sub.*] is massless.

The mass of the proton is [m.sub.p] and the

bare charge [e.sub.*] is massless.

The

bare charge [e.sub.*] is assumed to be massless and is related to the elementary charge e observed in the laboratory via [r.sup.2] = [alpha][e.sup.2.sub.*], where a is he fine structure constant.

The Planck constant then is associated only with the

bare charge [absolute value of [e.sub.*]] and not the electron mass--thus the quantum theory reflects the fact that, although the various elementary particles have different masses, they are associated with only one electric charge.

that respond in a iterative fashion to the

bare charge's Coulomb field, leading to the well-known relativistic electric and magnetic fields that are traditionally ascribed to the charge as a single entity.

The

bare charge (-[e.sub.*]) itself is massless, while the electron mass m results from the

bare charge being driven by the zero-point electromagnetic field [2] [3]; corresponding to which is a vanishingly small sphere containing the driven charge whose center defines the center of both the driven charge and its derived mass.