bark


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bark

or

barque

(both: bärk), sailing vessel with three masts, of which the mainmast and the foremast are square-rigged while the mizzenmast is fore-and-aft-rigged. Although the word was once used to mean any small boat, later barks were sometimes quite large (up to 6,000 tons). In addition to the standard three-masted bark there are also four-masted barks (fore-and-aft-rigged on the aftermast) and barkentines, or three-masted vessels with the foremast square-rigged and the other masts fore-and-aft-rigged. Large numbers of barks were employed in carrying wheat from Australia to England before World War I; and in 1926 the bark Beatrice sailed from Fremantle, Western Australia, to London in 86 days.

bark,

outer covering of the stem of woody plants, composed of waterproof cork cells protecting a layer of food-conducting tissue—the phloem or inner bark (also called bast). As the woody stem increases in size (see cambiumcambium
, thin layer of generative tissue lying between the bark and the wood of a stem, most active in woody plants. The cambium produces new layers of phloem on the outside and of xylem (wood) on the inside, thus increasing the diameter of the stem.
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), the outer bark of inelastic dead cork cells gives way in patterns characteristic of the species: it may split to form grooves; shred, as in the cedar; or peel off, as in the sycamore or the shagbark hickory. A layer of reproductive cells called the cork cambium produces new cork cells to replace or reinforce the old. The cork of commerce is the carefully harvested outer bark of the cork oak (Quercus suber), a native of S Europe. The phloem (see stemstem,
supporting structure of a plant, serving also to conduct and to store food materials. The stems of herbaceous and of woody plants differ: those of herbaceous plants are usually green and pliant and are covered by a thin epidermis instead of by the bark of woody plants.
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) conducts sap downward from the leaves to be used for storage and to nourish other plant parts. "Girdling" a tree, i.e., cutting through the phloem tubes, results in starvation of the roots and, ultimately, death of the tree; trees are sometimes girdled by animals that eat bark. The fiber cells that strengthen and protect the phloem ducts are a source of such textile fibers as hemp, flax, and jute; various barks supply tannin, cork (see cork oakcork oak,
name for an evergreen species of the oak genus (Quercus) of the family Fagaceae (beech family). The cork oak (Q. suber) is native to the Mediterranean region, where most of the world's commercial supply of cork is obtained.
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), dyes, flavorings (e.g., cinnamon), and drugs (e.g., quinine). The outer bark of the paper birch was used by Native Americans to make baskets and canoes.

bark

[bärk]
(botany)
The tissues external to the cambium in a stem or root.
(metallurgy)
The decarburized layer formed beneath the scale on the surface of steel heated in air.
(naval architecture)
A three-masted sailing ship whose foremast and mainmast are square-rigged and whose mizzenmast is fore-and-aft-rigged.

bark

The protective outer layer of a tree, composed of inner, conductive cells and outer corklike tissue.

bark

1. a protective layer of dead corky cells on the outside of the stems of woody plants
2. an informal name for cinchona
References in periodicals archive ?
If he is excited he will probably bark when visitors call, when you get his lead to go for a walk and when you make his dinner.
There are several wood-based alternatives to pine bark media.
Bark chips need to be about 5cm deep, so check your measurements to ensure you buy enough material to cover the space thoroughly.
Step one of any good barking-modification program is minimizing your dog's need and opportunity to bark.
Your dogs are unusual in that they do not bark at scary things; instead they bark when anticipating something good--food or a run in the dog park.
Bark loss was measured in autumn in New Zealand on radiata pine logs processed using two methods; delimbing and bucking with a mechanized, dangle-head processor fitted with spiked rollers, and delimbing with a static, pull-through delimber and manual bucking using a chainsaw.
The workshop, which was held at the Emerald People's Utility District near the entrance to the Mount Pisgah Arboretum, is just one of many workshops and classes taught by Crispin, a member of the Columbia Basin Basketry Guild who specializes in weaving with dyed and natural raffia, spinning paper, sea grass, bark and even clamshells.
Bark is the outer layer of a tree, protecting it from weather, insects, bacteria and fungal infections, in some respects like skin protects the body.
Strips of Prunus bark have been used as a decorative wrap for tomahawk handles and pipe stems.
If you hear a high-pitched bark from your dog, it is inviting you to come here but, if it's a low-pitched bark, it's telling you to go away.